Volume 1- Concepts and Theoretical Frameworks
Chapter 6. Multicultural Curriculum Concepts
· 6 · muLTiCuLTurAL CurriCuLum CONCEpTS Introduction In this chapter I will explore a brief overview of multicultural education. I will also examine a variety of theoretical frameworks for studying multicultural education. The major threads of multiculturalism in this chapter turn on whiteness studies, Latino/a studies, Islamophobia, Black/Feminist/Womanist studies and disability studies. Overview of Multicultural Education Christine Bennett (2011) writes that multicultural education has its roots in what Horace Kallen termed “cultural pluralism.” Bennett explains: The concept of cultural pluralism was developed early in the 20th century by dem- ocratic philosopher Horace Kallen…and has been transformed by scholars of color such as Carter G. Woodson (1933/1969), W. E. B. Du Bois (1961), Jack Forbes (1973), Ronald Takaki (1989), and Richard Ruiz (1991). (p. 90) 296 curriculum studies guidebooks The term “cultural pluralism” came about in response to large waves of immigrants coming to the United States from Europe. Although many immigrants wanted to hold onto their cultures, they had to become Amer- icanized. Donna M. Gollnick (2011) suggests that minority cultures had to “adapt to an Anglo-conformity system” (p. 39). While adherents of cul- tural pluralism applauded difference on the surface, assimilation was key. One wonders whether today the underlying message to new immigrants is “Anglo-conformity” (Gollnick, p. 39). Since 9/11 new immigrants are feared, especially by the right wing. Whereas at the turn of the 20th century, immi- grants were not so much feared as they were shunned. By the 1940s, Donna M. Gollnick explains, “intergroup education” (p. 34) arrived...
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