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An Aural-Performance Analysis of Revelation 1 and 11


Kayle B. de Waal

This book breaks fresh ground in the interpretation of the Apocalypse with an interdisciplinary methodology called aural-performance criticism that assesses how the first-century audience would have heard the Apocalypse. First-century media culture is probed by assessing the dynamics of literacy, orality, aurality, and performance in the Gospels, parts of the Pauline corpus, and also Jewish apocalyptic literature. The audience constructs of informed, minimal, and competent assist the interpreter to apply the methodology. Sound maps and an aural-performance commentary of Revelation 1 and 11 are developed that analyze aural markers, sound style, identity markers, repetition, themes, and the appropriation of the message by the audience. The book concludes by examining the sociological, theological, and communal aspects of aurality and performance and its implications for interpreting the Apocalypse.
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Chapter Two: The Authorial Audience and the Culture in John’s World



The Authorial Audience and the Culture in John’s World


This chapter provides an orientation to the phenomena of culture and the kind of culture in which John and the early Asian Christian community lived. A whole range of substantive issues are dealt with in this chapter to lay the groundwork for the aural-performance analysis of Revelation. A brief analysis of the socio-historical situation of the early Christians as depicted in Rev. 2 and 3 is first undertaken so that we may better situate this particular analysis. A discussion of the communicative environment of the first century CE and the neglected feature of the oral-auricular setting of the Apocalypse is also undertaken.

A Brief Introduction to the Hearing Community in Revelation

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