Caravaggio and Carlo Borromeo
1.Anne H. Muraoka, “Il fine della pittura: Canon Reformulation in the Age of Counter-Reformation—The Lombard–Roman Confluence,” PhD diss., Temple University, 2009.
2.Note regarding titles of artworks: An attempt has been made to balance translations of titles from the Italian—many of which, of course, were not contemporary—with extant English titles. Sometimes a more widely known English title has been used; other times, a closer translation. Throughout, however, I have written San Carlo Borromeo where an English translation title might usually say St. Charles Borromeo. The Italian titles referenced were those in Paolo Biscottini, ed., Carlo e Federico: La luce dei Borromeo nella Milano spagnola, exh. cat., Museo Diocesano, Milan, 5 November 2005–7 May 2006 (Gessate [Milan]: Arti Grafiche Colombo, 2005).
3.Beginning in the early twentieth century with Roberto Longhi’s seminal essays on Lombard precursors to Caravaggio to the important 2004 exhibition, Painters of Reality: The Legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy, the importance of Caravaggio’s Lombard predecessors on the artist’s own style have seen significant consideration. See Roberto Longhi, “Quesiti Caravaggeschi, I: Registro dei tempi,” Pinacotheca 1, no. 6 (1928): 17–33; Longhi, “Quesiti Caravaggeschi, II: I precedenti,” Pinacotheca 1, no. 7 (1929): 258–320; Flavio Caroli, ed., Il Cinquecento lombardo: Da Leonardo a Caravaggio, exh. cat., Palazzo Reale, Milan, 4 October 2000–25 February 2001 (Milan: Skira, 2000); and Andrea Bayer, ed., Painters of Reality: The Legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy, exh. cat...
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