A Spectator’s Role
In the course of more than fifty years at U.C. Berkeley I have taught, produced, directed, performed in, or written about, almost all of Shakespeare’s tragedies in innumerable venues and publications, activities from which many of the discussions that follow are derived directly or indirectly. Most of these occasions and earlier published sources are indicated in this book’s “References,” or are listed on our website at shakespearestaging.berkeley.edu I am most grateful to all the individuals and institutions involved in these activities and wish I could more adequately recognize many of them. All specific citations and allusions to them in this text connect to the relevant entries in the “References” section, including Shakespeare quotations, cued to the Riverside Shakespeare. This study’s epigraph (page ix) is spoken by the Emperor Diocletian in Act II of Lope de Vega’s tragicomedy Lo fingido verdadero (Gilbert, 540)
Despite such listings I cannot hope to acknowledge adequately the significant indebtedness involved to the individuals and institutions that have inspired, funded, reviewed, and otherwise participated in the evolution of this particular study. However, one essential precedent for what I attempt here, in stressing the role of the spectator as a determining factor in theatrical performance, lies in the observations of my friend and colleague, the late and much-lamented Marvin Rosenberg, with his authoritative surveys of the historical staging of Shakespeare’s tragedies and audiences’ responses to them. My other early mentors ← xi | xii → in Shakespeare interpretation at Berkeley were Willard Farnham and Bertrand Evans....
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