Masculinities in Hispanic Media
This collection of essays represents several developments in the field of communication studies. It is the first time that a study on the body of men in the Hispanic media has been carried out using film, television, internet, billboards, and so forth. This book also equates men to women in the media world. Lacking its own tradition, the male body has followed in the footsteps of the female body. It has been objectified, stylized, and transformed into a weapon of persuasion to reach the modern man.
The Male Body as Advertisement can be useful for students of communication, anthropology, sociology, gender studies, and cultural studies. It will serve graduate students as a bibliographic reference for research on the male body as well as undergraduate students whose programs address issues related to gender studies. This work is also written to reach a wider audience beyond the university.
10. Bodies to Vote: The Representation of the Political Candidate in the Election Campaigns
VÍCTOR HERNÁNDEZ-SANTAOLALLA, UNIVERSITY OF SEVILLE
Although its strategies and techniques used are older, modern political marketing was born in the United States in 1952, at a time when both Democrats and Republicans spent part of their budgets on political communication.1 Modern political marketing has been defined as the transfer of commercial marketing tools to the field of politics. In this sense, voters function as clients, while politicians and their parties stand as entrepreneurs who offer proposals, ideas, and people.2
In this regard, a fundamental difference that can be established between commercial and political marketing is the kind of product, which for the latter category would be the result of the combination of three variables: the candidate, the party and the electoral program.3 Barranco Saiz argues that the candidate is the most important of these three variables, since it is the candidate the one who reflects the needs and desires of the electorate.4 As Aristotle points out, the character of the communicator or ethos is an important element of persuasion. However, it was with the publication of The American Voter in 1960, that the influence of the candidate in the polls was first recognized, a direct causility that would be firmly established in the seventies and eighties (of the twentieth century). From this point on, the role of the candidate in American political communication has increased, although less so in Europe, where the political parties have traditionally enjoyed a greater persuasive power.5 However,...
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