From Slavery to the Twenty-First Century
Dimensions of Racism in Advertising will be useful for both research and teaching purposes. It can be used as a textbook in upper-level courses in African American studies, ethnic studies, advertising, mass media, public policy, sociology, and history. For policy makers, it will provide an alternative explanation for the stereotypical portrayal of Africans and African Americans in the United States and elsewhere. It will be similarly useful for nongovernmental organizations in fighting institutional racism and the marginalization of ethnic and racial groups in advertising and marketing.
Chapter 6 Lessons and Conclusion
Edward Lama Wonkeryor
The history of racism in advertising from the period of enslavement to recent times has created an enduring legacy. To assert the lessons and conclusion, we have, in this volume, scrutinized the history of race—an overt discrimination—in advertising and the development of African American identity as it relates to media. Further, we examined the unique role and responsibility of the advertising industry as both a mirror of society and an extraordinary influence on popular culture and social norms. We also critically looked at actual advertisements as a representation of discrimination in employment practices. In the end, our conclusion support the theory that fostering ethnic diversity among advertising personnel is not just an important regulatory issue to address historical failures, but is essential for multicultural marketing efforts to positively portray diverse ethnicities.
We also explicated the new role for advertising in telling a story about race in America. It is the story of the development of white group consciousness and the importance of the emerging “free market” mass media. Ultimately, this new role for advertising suggests that in a racialized state like America, the market gave birth to and built some elements of white nationalism. Specifically, we discussed modern newspapers and the formation of white racial group consciousness. We provided insight into how the principles of the Enlightenment crossed the Atlantic and conflicted with the developing market economy and the expansion of rights it afforded white males, while reducing the rights of...
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