Incorporating specialist literature, yet written in a clear, accessible style, the book combines three areas of study: media industry practices, media policy, and media theory. It examines the dynamics of cross-media promotion across converging media, drawing on a range of examples from the United States and the United Kingdom. Synergy and intertextuality are explored alongside critical debates about the ‘problems’ of cross-promotion. The book also offers a critical evaluation of media policy responses from the late 1980s to the present, which the book argues, have failed to grapple with the problems of media power, market power and commercialism generated by intensifying cross-media promotion.
2. Media Paradigms and Promotional Speech
Media Paradigms and Promotional Speech
Part 1: Paradigms of Media, Democracy and Policy
What is the problem with cross-media promotion? The answer depends on the value framework or paradigm in which the problem is conceived. Different frameworks give rise to different articulations, or constructions, of the problems of CMP and propose different remedies to tackle them. This chapter examines how cross-media promotion is articulated within the main political philosophical traditions concerning the media. Other chapters examine the formation of specific media policies; this chapter draws selectively on policy positions in order to illustrate how different paradigms construct and evaluate CMP. Section one introduces the main paradigms while section two addresses the treatment of cross-promotion in each one.
Liberal theory of the press holds that the primary democratic role of the media is to oversee the State. This task requires that the media are ‘free’ from State interference. The theory supports a free-market economic model particularly powerful in the United States and encapsulated in the ‘marketplace of ideas’ formulation of the US Supreme Court (Baker 1989).1 But it can also give rise to justifications for state action to protect pluralism and diversity of opinion.
Central to the evaluation of CMP considered below are judgements concerning speech rights; who may exercise them, what restrictions may be placed on speech and by whom, what measures and what conditions are necessary to protect speech. Also vital are...
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