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Paulo Freire

The Global Legacy

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Edited By Michael A. Peters and Tina Besley

This collection is the first book devoted to Paulo Freire’s ongoing global legacy to provide an analysis of the continuing relevance and significance of Freire’s work and the impact of his global legacy. The book contains essays by some of the world’s foremost Freire scholars – McLaren, Darder, Roberts, and others – as well as chapters by scholars and activists, including the Maori scholars Graham Hingangaroa Smith and Russell Bishop, who detail their work with the indigenous people of Aotearoa-New Zealand. The book contains a foreword by Nita Freire as well as chapters from scholars around the world including Latin America, Asia, the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia. With a challenging introduction from the editors, Michael A. Peters and Tina Besley, this much-awaited addition to the Freire archive is highly recommended reading for all students and scholars interested in Freire, global emancipatory politics, and the question of social justice in education.
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Chapter Nine: Social Emancipation and Human Rights

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CHAPTER NINE

Social Emancipation and Human Rights

MAURO TORRES SIQUEIRA

HUMAN RIGHTS AND SUBORDINATE COSMOPOLITISM

Throughout the course of history, capitalist society has been building a path of domination, exploration, discrimination, imposition, and overvaluation of the rational over the emotional. Such a state of affairs is part of a historical and cultural process passed on through generations, establishing the dominant paradigm on how we comprehend the world (Santos, 2002).

In that sense, Santos (2006) revisits the concept of globalization, dividing it into hegemonic and counter-hegemonic globalization, as well as emancipation and multiculturalism. These issues will be addressed in this chapter, along with the correlation between these concepts and social emancipation and popular education as access to human rights.

Let us start with a discussion on the concept of globalization. In the words of Santos, it is defined as “a set of social relations that translate into intensification of transnational interactions, be they interstate, global capitalist or socio-cultural transnational practices” (Santos, 2001, p. 90).

Thereby, we note that globalization has implications of economic, environmental, political, and cultural character. Globalization must be discussed as the sets of social relations that are modified in accordance with the changes within themselves. That is why, according to Santos (2006), this concept should ← 161 | 162 → be realized in the plural (globalizations) instead of in the singular. To make his thesis didactic, he classifies it in two ways: hegemonic globalization—constituted by two...

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