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Hispanic (LGT) Masculinities in Transition

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Edited By Rafael M. Mérida-Jiménez

The objective of Hispanic (LGT) Masculinities in Transition is to investigate the cultural representations/intersections of masculinity and sexual minorities (lesbians, gays, and transgenders) in Spain between the passing of the Law of Social Dangerousness and Social Rehabilitation (1970) and the reform of the Penal Code in 1995. In order to meet this aim, this volume analyzes the artistic production of a number of Spanish and Latin American male and female individuals who, first, were able to question the structures of control and domination in Spain in the last years of Franco’s dictatorship; second, were able to open up new horizons of freedom in the context of the criminalization of the previous decades; and, third, were able to bring about new models of masculinity that were more egalitarian during the first years of the new democracy.
More specifically, Hispanic (LGT) Masculinities in Transition will interlink the fields of political and historical change and artistic production in order to assess whether cultural representations can be understood as mere reflections of social and political change. In terms of the materials being examined, these are, in the first instance, literary, although other narratives are also addressed (filmic production and plastic arts). This volume is essential reading for professors and students of contemporary Spanish history and culture, as well as for those interested in lesbian, gay, transgender, and masculinity issues.
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8—Machos or divinas? A Quandary in Argentinean and Spanish Gay Activism

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During the 1970s, homosexual liberationist ideas spread internationally through associations that emerged from different latitudes and from bulletins or newspapers that they published and exchanged.1 Apart from the historical and cultural particularities of each context, some affinity is observed in some of their fundamental proposals, such as those concerning “sexual roles” and the different ways to embody them. Certainly, this debate goes back much further: in his emblematic treaty of defense of paedophilia, Corydon, published in 1924, André Gide established a dividing line between respectable (male) gay and outrageous (effeminates).2 The discussion, far from being overcome, remains in full validity, as can be seen in the reactions to Pedro Almodóvar’s latest film, Los amantes pasajeros (I’m So Excited, 2012): while some critics believe that the “faggot” figure, central to the film, repeats a well-known and reductive stereotype, others value its revolutionary potential and its challenge to the normative of the regulations, both hetero and homo.3

The aim of this chapter is to analyze the variable conceptions of masculinity in the texts of two Argentinean activists, Héctor Anabitarte Rivas and Ricardo Lorenzo Sanz, exiled in 1976 in Spain, where they reside since then. The specific production of these authors is of interest since it evidences the ideological proximity between the discourses of Argentinean and Spanish homosexual activism, both influenced by the theories and debates that were spreading to different parts of the globe from the United States and some European countries (mainly France, Italy, and England)...

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