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American Indian Women of Proud Nations

Essays on History, Language, and Education

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Edited By Cherry Maynor Beasley, Mary Ann Jacobs and Ulrike Wiethaus

This multidisciplinary collection of nine previously unpublished essays presents new research in three interlocking domains: tribal history with a special emphasis on Native women in the Southeast, language revitalization efforts and the narrative knowledge inherent in indigenous oral culture, and traditional educational systems in the context of the ongoing colonization of American Indian educational practices and values. This volume highlights Southeastern Indian issues and demonstrates the unique situation of women in tribes lacking (full) federal recognition or a more inclusive and multidisciplinary discussion of Native women in more than one tribal nation. Southeastern themes are linked with topics of concern by other tribal nations to show commonalities and raised awareness about the central experiences and contributions of Native women in the encounter and ongoing struggle with Euro-American systems of oppression and cultural erasure.
This book spans the full gamut from naming women’s experiences of historical trauma to their ongoing efforts at preserving and rebuilding their Native nations. The collection of essays is distinctive in its Indigenous hermeneutics in that it insists on a holistic view of time and place-based knowledge – the past still fully affects the present and gives the present depth and meaning beyond the linear flow of time.
This book also features American Indian and non-American Indian scholars who are well known in American Indians studies, scholars beginning their career and scholars who, while not experts in American Indians studies, are considered experts in other disciplines and who recognize the unique attributes of Southeastern American Indian nations.
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Southeastern American Indians, Segregation, and Historical Trauma Theory

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MARY ANN JACOBS



INTRODUCTION: ELDER MEMORIES AND HISTORICAL TRAUMA

This article argues that historical trauma theory may offer a valuable paradigm to better understand the history and current physical health, mental health and abuse crises among Southeastern North Carolina American Indian tribes. The concept of historical trauma constitutes a theory of intergenerational and community-wide trauma transmission that has been widely studied among Native Americans, African Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Mexican Americans (Estrada, 2009). In this volume, Rosemary White Shield reviews the impact of historical trauma on Native Women that is an important facet of the high rates of alcoholism, substance abuse, sexual abuse and domestic violence among Native women. However, much of that research has been documented for Native women living west of the Mississippi. Although historical trauma caused by colonialism affected all Native nations, the Southeastern region is unique in its legacy of enslavement of African Americans and American Indian peoples, and the subsequent legalization of segregation. Southeastern historical trauma in a Native context has not yet been sufficiently understood and invites reflections for expanding research methodologies and agendas.

Building on a long history of systematic disenfranchisement, the so-called Jim Crow policies implemented US legalized segregation that lasted from 1890 to 1965. Jim Crow impacted African Americans, American Indians, and other persons of ← 45 | 46 → color throughout the south. While the Jim Crow era has been identified as a period of historical trauma for African Americans, that era of...

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