Essays on History, Language, and Education
Edited By Cherry Maynor Beasley, Mary Ann Jacobs and Ulrike Wiethaus
This book spans the full gamut from naming women’s experiences of historical trauma to their ongoing efforts at preserving and rebuilding their Native nations. The collection of essays is distinctive in its Indigenous hermeneutics in that it insists on a holistic view of time and place-based knowledge – the past still fully affects the present and gives the present depth and meaning beyond the linear flow of time.
This book also features American Indian and non-American Indian scholars who are well known in American Indians studies, scholars beginning their career and scholars who, while not experts in American Indians studies, are considered experts in other disciplines and who recognize the unique attributes of Southeastern American Indian nations.
Southeastern American Indians, Segregation, and Historical Trauma Theory
MARY ANN JACOBS
INTRODUCTION: ELDER MEMORIES AND HISTORICAL TRAUMA
This article argues that historical trauma theory may offer a valuable paradigm to better understand the history and current physical health, mental health and abuse crises among Southeastern North Carolina American Indian tribes. The concept of historical trauma constitutes a theory of intergenerational and community-wide trauma transmission that has been widely studied among Native Americans, African Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Mexican Americans (Estrada, 2009). In this volume, Rosemary White Shield reviews the impact of historical trauma on Native Women that is an important facet of the high rates of alcoholism, substance abuse, sexual abuse and domestic violence among Native women. However, much of that research has been documented for Native women living west of the Mississippi. Although historical trauma caused by colonialism affected all Native nations, the Southeastern region is unique in its legacy of enslavement of African Americans and American Indian peoples, and the subsequent legalization of segregation. Southeastern historical trauma in a Native context has not yet been sufficiently understood and invites reflections for expanding research methodologies and agendas.
Building on a long history of systematic disenfranchisement, the so-called Jim Crow policies implemented US legalized segregation that lasted from 1890 to 1965. Jim Crow impacted African Americans, American Indians, and other persons of ← 45 | 46 → color throughout the south. While the Jim Crow era has been identified as a period of historical trauma for African Americans, that era of...
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