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American Indian Women of Proud Nations

Essays on History, Language, and Education


Edited By Cherry Maynor Beasley, Mary Ann Jacobs and Ulrike Wiethaus

This multidisciplinary collection of nine previously unpublished essays presents new research in three interlocking domains: tribal history with a special emphasis on Native women in the Southeast, language revitalization efforts and the narrative knowledge inherent in indigenous oral culture, and traditional educational systems in the context of the ongoing colonization of American Indian educational practices and values. This volume highlights Southeastern Indian issues and demonstrates the unique situation of women in tribes lacking (full) federal recognition or a more inclusive and multidisciplinary discussion of Native women in more than one tribal nation. Southeastern themes are linked with topics of concern by other tribal nations to show commonalities and raised awareness about the central experiences and contributions of Native women in the encounter and ongoing struggle with Euro-American systems of oppression and cultural erasure.
This book spans the full gamut from naming women’s experiences of historical trauma to their ongoing efforts at preserving and rebuilding their Native nations. The collection of essays is distinctive in its Indigenous hermeneutics in that it insists on a holistic view of time and place-based knowledge – the past still fully affects the present and gives the present depth and meaning beyond the linear flow of time.
This book also features American Indian and non-American Indian scholars who are well known in American Indians studies, scholars beginning their career and scholars who, while not experts in American Indians studies, are considered experts in other disciplines and who recognize the unique attributes of Southeastern American Indian nations.
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Introduction to Part Two



Education and parenting constitute the process that bonds one generation to the next. Education and parenting ensure survival of cultural knowledge, identity, and sovereignty. Unity in kinship and a living, breathing fabric of intergenerational connectivity create stability and safety amidst any kind of change. To protect both is of paramount value and demands determination, thoughtfulness, time, and, as Rosemary White Shield notes, the conviction that only the very best effort will do. The four chapters in this section offer a scholarly panorama of best educational and parenting practices in past and present to ensure optimal kinship ties and intergenerational connectivity. Oxendine’s description of wholehearted teaching as the one culturally distinctive teacher quality that made Lumbee schools the center of community life and young people’s well-being reverberates in White Shield’s model of culturally-based, community-based, and holistic American Indian schooling. Second generation UNC Pembroke American Indian Studies scholars Rosemary Stremlau and Jane Haladay deeply value and model their own work on the wholehearted teaching of their female elder mentors at UNC Pembroke and UNC Chapel Hill, and as their essay demonstrates, their own work carries the lessons learned by creatively applying them to new challenges and opportunities. Within an American Indian metaphysics, for educational best practices to take fully root, Native parents and care takers parent “wholeheartedly” to generate coherence and the optimal conditions for young people to be and become what the Creator has intended. Christy Buchanan and Grace Bobbitt show us how....

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