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(Re)imagining African Independence

Film, Visual Arts and the Fall of the Portuguese Empire

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Maria do Carmo Piçarra and Teresa Castro

The fortieth anniversary of the independence of the African countries colonized by Portugal presents a valuable opportunity to reassess how colonialism has been «imagined» through the medium of the moving image. The essays collected in this volume investigate Portuguese colonialism and its filmic and audio-visual imaginaries both during and after the Estado Novo regime, examining political propaganda films shot during the liberation wars and exploring the questions and debates these generate. The book also highlights common aspects in the emergence of a national cinema in Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau. By reanimating (and decolonizing) the archive, it represents an important contribution to Portuguese colonial history, as well as to the history of cinema and the visual arts.

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List of Figures ix Acknowledgements xiii Lúcia Nagib Foreword xv Maria do Carmo Piçarra and Teresa Castro Colonial Reflections, Post-Colonial Refractions: Film and the Moving Image in the Portuguese (Post-)Colonial Situation 1 Part I The Birth [through Images] of African Nations 23 Maria do Carmo Piçarra 1 Ruy Duarte: A Cinema of the Word Aspiring to Imagine Angolanness 25 Raquel Schefer 2 Between the Visible and the Invisible: Mueda, Memória e Massacre (1982) by Ruy Guerra and the Cultural Forms of the Makonde Plateau 47 Ros Gray 3 Clear Lines on an Internationalist Map: Foreign Filmmakers in Angola at Independence 65 vi Robert Stock 4 The Many Returns to Wiriyamu: Audiovisual Testimony and the Negotiation of Colonial Violence 87 Part II The Fall of the Portuguese Empire: Foreign Gazes during the Cold War 109 Afonso Ramos 5 ‘Rarely penetrated by camera or film’: NBC’s Angola: Journey to a War (1961) 111 Rui Lopes 6 The US and Portuguese Colonialism as Imagined through Television Drama 131 Iolanda Vasile 7 African Independence and the Socialist Republic of Romania’s Photographic Archive 151 Part III Moving Images, Post-Colonial Representations and the Archive 171 José Manuel Costa 8 Colonial Collection of the Portuguese Film Archive: Shot, Reverse Shot, Off-Screen 173 Ana Balona de Oliveira 9 A Decolonizing Impulse: Artists in the Colonial and Post- Colonial Archive, Or the Boxes of Departing Settlers between Maputo, Luanda and Lisbon 185 vii Teresa Castro 10 In-Between Memory and History: Artists’ Films and the...

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