Creations, Circulations, Tensions, Transitions (19th–21st C.)
What interpretation(s) do today’s historians make of electrification? Electrification is a process which began almost a hundred and fifty years ago but which more than one billion men and women still do not have access to. This book displays the social diversity of the electric worlds and of the approaches to their history. It updates the historical knowledge and shows the renewal of the historiography in both its themes and its approaches. Four questions about the passage to the electrical age are raised: which innovations or combination of innovations made this passage a reality? According to which networks and appropriation? Evolving thanks to which tensions and alliances? And resulting in which transition and accumulation?
Quel(s) regard(s) les historiens d’aujourd’hui portent-ils sur l’électrification, processus engagé il y a près de cent cinquante ans mais auquel plus d’un milliard d’hommes et de femmes restent encore étrangers ? Le présent volume rend compte de la diversité des mondes sociaux électriques et des manières d’enquêter sur leur histoire. Il actualise les connaissances et témoigne du renouvellement de l’historiographie, dans ses objets et ses approches. Quatre points d’interrogation sur le basculement des sociétés dans l’âge électrique jalonnent le volume : moyennant quelles créations ou combinaisons créatrices ? En vertu de quelles circulations et appropriations ? Selon quelles tensions et alliances ? Et produisant quelles transitions et accumulations ?
La part des capitaux français dans les sociétés électrotechniques tchécoslovaques durant l’entre-deux-guerres et au début de la guerre froide
Marcela EFMERTOVá et Jan MIKEš
After the First World War Czechoslovakia was established as a state of Czechs and Slovaks, but – in actual fact – it was a multinational state, from its early days weighed down by nationalist problems, which shaped the formation of the Czechoslovak economy. In economic terms, Czechoslovakia was the strongest successor state of Austro-Hungary with 21% of the territory of the former monarchy (140,000 square kms), with 25% of its inhabitants (13.6 million), and with 70% of the entire industrial production of the erstwhile monarchy. In other respects, the country ranked among smaller Central European states. The capacity of its market accounted for roughly one third of that of the former monarchy. Industrial production, formerly focused on the markets of the entire monarchy, now faced keen competition. Czechoslovakia was poor in raw materials, which had to be imported. That was why the country had to seek new markets for its products. Thanks to the Treaty of Versailles, Czechoslovakia was politically oriented on France, economically on the successor states of Austro-Hungary, and – starting in 1921 – on the countries of the Little Entente (Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia), and in some areas also on Russia and Greece. Proceeding from this basis, the study is aimed at highlighting cooperation between the company Schneider Cie Creusot with the Czech company Škoda Plzeň (and in connection with Živnobanka bank), laying accent on electrical engineering production, both in the interwar period and at the times of communist...
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