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Médecine et santé dans les campagnes

Approches historiques et enjeux contemporains

Series:

Edited By Patrick Fournier, Claude Grimmer and Marie Bolton

Les territoires ruraux font l’objet de préoccupations spécifiques en matière de santé : souvent considérés comme des « déserts médicaux », ils attirent de plus en plus l’attention des pouvoirs publics. La réalité est complexe et diversifiée en fonction de multiples paramètres. L’objet de cet ouvrage collectif est de comprendre les processus historiques qui ont contribué à façonner les relations entre les populations des campagnes, les soignants et les autorités de toutes natures. Différents éclairages permettent de comprendre les évolutions survenues depuis la Renaissance. À partir d’exemples principalement français et européens, mais aussi d’études de territoires colonisés et dominés, les auteurs s’interrogent sur les formes de la médicalisation à l’œuvre dans les campagnes : présence de médecins et d’autres personnels de soins, création de structures spécifiques, relations sanitaires entre villes et campagnes, apports des campagnes au savoir médical... En définitive, c’est la notion de territoire rural de santé qui est questionnée. Des ouvertures sur la situation contemporaine permettent de réfléchir à la pérennité des héritages et à l’ampleur des (r)évolutions en cours.

 

 

The countryside presents specific issues to consider when studying health care. Often termed "medical deserts," rural areas have increasingly become a focus of concern for public administrators. Multiple parameters demonstrate its complex and diversified reality. This collection seeks to understand the historical processes that have contributed to the development of relationships between rural populations, health care providers, and various authorities. A variety of perspectives illuminate the diverse changes that have occurred since the Renaissance. Through an examination of primarily French and European but also colonial examples, the authors investigate various forms of medicalization at work in rural areas: the presence of doctors and other health care providers, creation of specific health care structures, relationships between rural and urban areas in terms of health issues, contributions by country dwellers to medical knowledge, and so forth. The very notion of health care as specific to the countryside is questioned. The status of rural medicine and health care in present times is also addressed to reflect both on continuities with the past and the scope of changes to come.

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The Lemon: A Medical Cure-All in the Early Modern British Countryside (Paul Lloyd)

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The Lemon: A Medical Cure-All in the Early Modern British Countryside

Paul Lloyd

Adjunct Professor of Early Modern History

University of Leicester (UK)

“I dare not write how good a sauce it is at meat, lest the chief in the ships waste it in their great Cabins to save vineger.”1

Abstract: The lemon, long known for its medicinal properties among southern Europeans, became increasingly significant in Britain from the early 17th century on, despite an apparent shift in thinking that favoured the use of chemicals and minerals. This article examines a broad selection of sources to see why this particular fruit seems to have bucked the trend, and compares medical theory with practice at the point of application.

Within the humoral schema, and within the later chemical and mechanical models of the body, various parts of this cheaply acquirable fruit were used in lotions and potions for treating many life-threatening and minor illnesses. This study provides details of how lemon-based medicines were made and administered at home, and concludes that because of its low cost and perceived efficacious properties, it actually became increasingly important, and was still significant in medical circles at the end of the early modern period.

Résumé : Le citron, connu depuis longtemps pour ses propriétés médicinales parmi les populations d’Europe méridionale, a pris une importance croissante en Grande-Bretagne à partir du début du xviie siècle – malgr...

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