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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration


Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)


The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the European Union (EU) is designed to facilitate neighbourhood relations at its external borders. It is aimed both at EU candidate countries and at countries that are not necessarily intending to join the EU and thus also relates to the external borders that are destined to remain so for the foreseeable future.

The ENP is in fact an extension of three former programs: the Poland and Hungary Assistance for Restructuring of the Economy (PHARE) program, the Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States (TACIS) program and the Mediterranean Area (MEDA program. The first two were developed in response to the changes in the geopolitical order that Europe underwent at the end of the 1980s. The third is part of a wider perspective, namely that of the development of the territories ←369 | 370→around the Mediterranean Sea. In all three cases, the objective is to establish an area of stability extending beyond the EU and to prevent the external borders from becoming lines signifying marked disparities.

In 1989, the EEC inaugurated the PHARE program with a view to providing financial aid for the economic and political transition of Poland and Hungary, two socialist countries that had been members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and were undergoing substantial political change foreshadowing the opening of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989. Negotiations in Poland between the Government and the Solidarność trade union led to...

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