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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Greece

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Greece has a population of 10.7 million and covers an area of 131 000 km2. It comprises both a mainland, where the main towns are situated, and an impressive number of islands, of which Crete is the largest. This territorial configuration is similar to that of Denmark, a country where cooperation is highly developed on its maritime borders. Greece lies close to Turkey, a regional power which is a European Union (EU) candidate member state. That proximity will therefore need to be taken into consideration.

Greece gained its independence at the London Conference of 1830 after fighting a ten-year war of independence against the Ottoman Empire, ←515 | 516→with support from the European powers, France, United Kingdom and in particular Russia. The country was initially restricted to Attica and the Peloponnese. The territory of Greece expanded continuously in the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century. This expansion occurred on both the mainland and the islands. After the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), in which it gained Macedonia, Epirus and Crete, the territory of Greece looked very much as it is now. The 1920 Treaty of Sevres, signed in the aftermath of World War I, sought to dismantle the Ottoman Empire and recognize nationalist movements. Greece was granted new territories (Thrace and the Smyrna region in Asia Minor) but lost them again in 1923 under the Treaty of Lausanne, which laid down the borders of the new Turkish Republic. The boundary drawn...

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