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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA)

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The Instrument for Pre-Accession (IPA) is an instrument of the European Union (EU) designed to facilitate cross-border cooperation across its external borders. It is intended for candidate countries which are seeking to accede to the EU in the short or medium-term and therefore relates to borders that will in time become internal.

The Poland and Hungary Assistance for Restructuring of the Economy (PHARE) program was designed to provide aid for the transition of the countries of central and eastern Europe following the end of the Cold War (with the dismantling of the Iron Curtain), and from 1994, it became an instrument of the pre-accession strategy for these countries. The objective ←538 | 539→was in one sense economic, since it was a question of facilitating the transition from a planned economy to a capitalist economy; but it was also political, since it involved promoting the emergence of democratic regimes based on the rule of law. All the countries that joined the EU between 2004 and 2013 received aid (with the exception of Malta and Cyprus).

In 2000, PHARE was converted into an integrated pre-accession program, with the 2004 enlargement in mind. In this context, it was supplemented by two new instruments: the Structural Instrument for Pre-accession (ISPA) and the Special Accession Program for Agricultural and Rural Development (SAPARD). The former was designed to prepare the candidate countries to manage especially the European Regional Policy, while the latter was to prepare them for the...

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