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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Italy

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Italy is one of the largest member states of the European Union (EU). This founder member of the European Economic Community (EEC) has approximately 60.5 million inhabitants, which is comparable to France and the United Kingdom. However, it was established as a nation state much later than those two countries. The territories on the peninsula were only officially united in 1861, although it was another ten years before all the possessions of the Papal states were incorporated. That made it possible to move the capital to Rome, which had both the advantage of being located roughly in the centre of the new country and the legitimacy conferred by its glorious history. Nevertheless, the ←572 | 573→Republic of San Marino has remained independent. Located between the provinces of Marche and Emilia-Romagna, not far from the Adriatic Sea, it is now an enclave in the territory of Italy and one of the third smallest micro-state of the world (61 km2). During the first World War, Italy took first a neutral position before joining the Triple Entente in 1915. Being on the winner side, Austrian territories (Trentino-Alto Adige/ South Tyrol, the Istrian peninsula) were assigned to Italy by the Treaty of Saint-Germain in 1919 in accordance with the theory of irredentism that claims national sovereignty on all territories where Italian was spoken (even if in minority). After World War II, Italy being this time on the defeated side, lost several territories. Istria became the “free territory of Trieste” by...

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