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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Andorra

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Andorra is a micro-state in the middle of the Pyrenees Mountains, a small country of 468 km2 with 6 embassies around the world (Paris, Madrid, Brussels, Lisbon, Vienna, New-York), as well as a permanent mission in Geneva and permanent representation in Strasbourg. Located between France and Spain, it has always had special relationships with these two states. It was first a co-seigneury, which became a co-Principality in 1278 with the “Paréages” (agreements between the bishop of Urgell and the Count of Foix), and was represented by its two co-Princes until 1993 after which, it became a state in its own rights. A few months ←65 | 66→after the adoption of its Constitution, in July 1993, Andorra joined the United Nations and in November 1994 became a member of the Council of Europe. An agreement which dates back to 1990 was reaffirmed in 1996, associating Andorra with the European Union (EU) and giving it advantageous peculiarities such as a customs union establishing the existence of a free trade regime based on the tariff classification of industrial products. In 2011, Andorra also signed a monetary agreement with the EU, allowing it to use the Euro as its official currency.

Over the years, Principality of Andorra has signed a series of treaties and agreements with the French and Spanish States in fiscal, economic, educational and health matters, thus enabling bi- and tri-lateral cross-border cooperation. In total we can count 7 international agreements: the Trilateral Treaty (1993)...

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