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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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People-to-People Projects

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People-to-people projects are an important and successful tool in cross-border cooperation programs (CBC) designed to initiate and promote grassroots contact among people.

People-to-people projects (P2P) are small-scale projects focusing primarily on promoting contacts and interaction between people on different sides of a border. These usually have a smaller budget and also a limited duration. The activities of the projects take place in smaller geographic areas (commonly at euro-regional level) and their approaches are commonly place-based. They are carried out in a wide range of fields such as culture (e.g. learning the neighbouring language), sport, tourism, ←638 | 639→education and vocational training, economy, science, environmental protection and ecology, healthcare, transport and small infrastructure (cross-border gaps), administrative cooperation, promotional activities, etc. P2P and small-scale projects are accessible to a wide range of beneficiaries such as municipalities, Non Governmental Organisations (ONGs) (numerous types of associations, platforms, networks, foundations, churches, etc.), educational institutions (schools, vocational training centres and universities) and research and business-support institutions.

P2P projects have been supported by several generations of Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) programs. In the current period, people-to-people and small-scale projects are financed in 19 CBC programs (approximately one third of them). They are mainly supported through a Small Project Fund (SPF) or similar instruments (sometimes called micro-projects, disposition fund or framework project to support small projects/initiatives). These SPFs usually take the form of an “umbrella project” under which several smaller sub-projects are implemented. In general, the funding has been rather low...

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