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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Territorial Diplomacy

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Territorial diplomacy has often been qualified as the “small” foreign policy practiced by local and regional authorities, who thereby become genuine actors in international relations. Fostered since the 1980s by globalization, cities, regions, and federal states have increasingly contributed to the “major” foreign policy conducted by their national governments. The external action of local and regional authorities has therefore gradually broadened and put an end to the traditional conception of the Westphalian state, which possesses the privilege of exclusivity over foreign policy. Applied to cross-border cooperation, territorial diplomacy has been mainly used, since the 1990s, for the implementation of European Regional Policy and the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP).

The notion of territorial diplomacy has multiple meanings and includes numerous formulations in the scientific literature such as para-diplomacy, sub-state diplomacy, regional diplomacy, city diplomacy, local and regional diplomacy, decentralized diplomacy, etc., which do not necessarily reflect the same approach to external action of infra-national actors. To start with, Anglophone political scientists (Ivo Duchacek, Panayotis Soldatos, Francisco Aldecoa, Michael Keating) have used the term of para-diplomacy to designate this new diplomacy practiced below the central state level. Their theoretical works were rather open considering the type of actors concerned which could be federal states, local and regional authorities or even non-governmental actors (ONGs). In the German literature, however, this type of diplomacy was mainly reserved for the activities of the German Länder and labelled as “Nebenaußenpolitik”, among underlining its parallel character with regard to the federal...

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