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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Border Security in Europe

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Securing borders in the 21st century is much less a geo-locational or geopolitical activity than it was fifty years ago. Today, it is as much about information and electronic boundaries as it was about guarding boundary lines, border posts, gates, and cannon or chains across waterways in the past. Obviously, land, sea and air physical infrastructures and walls still exist, but they are in complement to electronic and information-analytics taking place across vast worldwide networks of information-control that do not follow the internationally agreed boundary lines of specific countries. These global borders regulate most traded goods and a large part of all human movements.

Until the 1990s, the literatures on borders and security underscored two fundamentally different approaches to border security. The primacy was that military security remained fundamental in the formulation of border security policies. But Europeans scholars ssuch as Kevin Gray and Barry Buzan profoundly altered the debates by suggesting that security was much more complex than military security suggested, and that combining thinking about security as a multi-sectoral approach including environmental, economic, and social dimensions to security and intelligence had become a necessity. The European Union (EU) Neighbourhood policies complex and multifaceted approaches encompass all those dimensions linking development, trade, and rights, with intelligence and enforcement policies. Clearly, the 1990s was the turning point with the fall of the Berlin wall, the archetypical boundary wall and the rise of pandemics (mad cow, 1996; influenza, 2009), nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl (1986) or the...

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