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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Cross-Border Maritime Cooperation

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Local cross-border maritime cooperation can be defined as a cooperation between coastal regions across a maritime border. Characterized by proximity, it is addressed by cohesion policy through the cross-border strand of European Territorial Cooperation (ETC). It differs from the cooperation undertaken in larger maritime spaces, addressed by the transnational strand of ETC and by macro-regional strategies. However, the boundary between these two strands is not watertight. For example, the Franco-British Channel coastlines have been so far covered by two cross-border maritime programs: France (Channel) England, and 2 Seas, but also by the transnational North-West Europe program, and the Atlantic Maritime Strategy. In light of the “classic” definition of cross-border cooperation proposed by the Council of Europe as “neighbourly relations between local authorities across a national border”, the maritime space (except in the case of a shared coastline) constitutes both a natural barrier and a link. Border maritime areas are interdependent and form spaces of existing or potential joint development. The aim of cooperation is to go from “peripheral” maritime territories to “shared” maritime territories.

While national governments are the primary players involved in maritime cooperation on topics relating to the environment, maritime traffic and security, over the past years, coastal local authorities such as port towns, public institutions, regions, departments, provinces and other sub-regional levels have developed local maritime cooperation initiatives. As maritime zones are areas where the sovereignty of state is particularly strong, the main challenge facing these local or regional players has been to...

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