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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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Energy

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The energy sector has experienced profound transformations in the last decades. The liberalization of energy markets and their progressive integration have been accompanied by the development of technical and regulatory authorities, deepening and structuring cross-border cooperation for the proper functioning of a European Energy Union.

The application of the new set of rules is carefully overseen by National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in every member states. They must ensure the proper functioning of the market, especially regarding competition rules and the role of Transmission System Operators (TSOs), which must grant non-discriminatory and transparent network access to all market participants. The necessary coordination of the NRAs as well as the uniform application of European Union (EU) energy market rules called for the creation of the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER). ACER advises the European Commission and coordinates the technical conditions needed to regulate the cross-border flow of energy. This multilevel governance has resulted in a form of “centralized cooperation” around the EU Commission and ACER.

A more horizontal form of cross-border cooperation has also emerged to ensure the effective integration of an EU energy market. Informal cooperation, such as EU-wide fora on specific topics involving all the stakeholders of the energy sector, has emerged but did not result in regulatory convergence. The Regulation 714/2009 on conditions for access to the network for cross-border exchanges in electricity foresaw the creation of a European Network of TSOs (ENTSO) in the gas and electricity sectors, which...

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