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Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration

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Edited By Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel

This Critical Dictionary on Borders, Cross-Border Cooperation and European Integration is the first encyclopaedia which combines two so far not well interconnected interdisciplinary research fields, i.e. Border Studies and European Studies. Organised in an alphabetical order, it contains 207 articles written by 115 authors from different countries and scientific disciplines which are accompanied by 58 maps. The articles deal with theory, terminology, concepts, actors, themes and spaces of neighbourhood relations at European borders and in borderlands of and around the European Union (EU). Taking into account a multi-scale perspective from the local to the global, the Critical Dictionary follows a combined historical-geographical approach and is co-directed by Birte Wassenberg and Bernard Reitel, with a large contribution of Jean Peyrony and Jean Rubio from the Mission opérationnelle transfrontalère (MOT), especially for the cartography. The Dictionary is also part of four Jean Monnet activities supported by the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union for the period 2016-2022: two Jean Monnet projects on EU border regions (University Strasbourg), one Jean Monnet network (Frontem) and the Franco-German Jean Monnet excellence Center in Strasbourg, as well as the Jean Monnet Chair of Bernard Reitel on borders and European integration. Rather than being designed as an objective compilation of facts and figures, it should serve as a critical tool for discussion between researchers, students and practitioners working in the field of borders, cross-border cooperation and European Integration.

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European Development Pole Longwy

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The European Development Pole (EDP) is the name of a geographical zone centred on the conversion point of 3 national borders: France (urban agglomeration of the Municipality of Longwy), the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (Municipality of Pétange), and Belgium (Municipality of Aubange). Until the late 70’s, the area hosted an exceptional regrouping of steel factories. These employed more than 22 000 individuals in the valley of the Chiers, in which urbanization had been developing since the 19th century thanks to the growth of the “Masters of Forge” activities, initially based on the extraction of local iron ore.

This specific geographical zone became the heart of a regional and cross-border structuring project, whose scope of action covered a wide region with fuzzy boundaries up to 20 km around the triple point, affecting about 300 000 inhabitants. Between the late 70’s and early 80’s, the region was hit harshly by the almost complete closure of the steel factories.

The limited success of the national attempts for the conversion of the region pushed the authorities of the three countries in 1985 to agree on a common objective: the conversion of 3 dead-end roads into a single crossroad. This grew into a Joint Declaration for an EDP and simultaneously developed into a 10-year action program. This program was supported by the European Commission for 5 years and split into 3 national Community Interest Programs. This corresponds to one of the first ERDF operation modes under this format, prefiguring...

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