Edited By Jorge Cagiao y Conde and Alain-G. Gagnon
The controversial issue of secession has received little attention from experts of federalism. The best federal studies either evade it or dismiss it in a few lines. However, the issue of secession has been present throughout the history of federations. This book is one of the first to explore the complex relationship between federalism and secession.
The authors whose work is presented here recognize the potential of federalism as a way to organize relations between several different states, peoples, nations or territories under the same government. However, they are not naïve or idealist about the ability of the federal idea to succeed in the complex situations in which it is applied. In some cases success seems assured (the United States, Switzerland, Germany, etc.), and the merits of federalism can be showcased. But there are also failures (the former Yugoslavia, or more recently Brexit) and semi-failures that have generated turbulence in recent years in devolutive systems (Scotland in the United Kingdom, Catalonia in Spain) or federative systems (Québec in Canada).
This book provides a nuanced portrait of the issue of secession in federal contexts and lays the groundwork for questioning the still too fragile legacy of the great thinkers of federalism.
- About the author
- About the book
- This eBiook can be cited
- Territorial federalism and multinational federalism
- Structure of the book
- 1 Federalism(s) and secession: from constitutional theory to practice: CHRISTOPHE PARENT
- 1. Confederation: a “free union” that hides its true nature?
- 1.1 From a union of sovereign states …
- 1.1.1 Confederation as viewed in Kantian political philosophy
- 1.1.2 The concept of confederation in public law
- 1.2 … to a “perpetual confederation”
- 1.2.1 Confederal laws against secession
- 1.2.2 The philosophical turning-point in the 16th century: the Dutch influence
- 1.2.3 Universalization of the right of secession: the US Declaration of Independence
- 2. The federal state: an “indissoluble union”?
- 2.1 Federal positive law
- 2.1.1 Federal constitutions expressly allowing a right of secession
- a) Constitutions that recognized a right of secession in the past
- b) Constitutions currently recognizing a right of secession
- 2.1.2 Federal constitutions excluding all forms of secession
- 2.1.3 Constitutions that remain silent on the question of secession
- a) Interpretation by Supreme Court justices: a centripetal constitutional force
- b) Federal realpolitik
- 2.2 Using constitutional theory to cut the Gordian knot of secession
- 2.2.1 The trap set by the syncretism of the federal state
- 2.2.2 Redefining the constitutional basis for secession
- a) Partial versus total revision
- b) Actual cases
- 2 Secession from a federation: a plea for an autonomous concept of federative secession: OLIVIER BEAUD
- 1. Defining and identifying the concept of federative secession
- 1.1 The dominant conception of secession
- 1.1.1 Secession seen as the aspiration of an infra-state (or infra-nation) group to constitute its own state or nation
- 1.1.2 The legal dogma on secession
- a) Secession is not dissolution
- b) Secession is not devolution
- 1.2 Federative secession and conceptual autonomy
- 1.2.1 Why the state-centric view of secession fails to account for the specific nature of federative secession
- 1.2.2 Dogma on federative secession
- a) Federative secession and intra-federative secession
- b) Secession of a member state and exclusion of a member state
- c) Unilateral or non-unilateral secession?
- d) The effects of secession: secession and dissolution
- 2. Deciding the licitness of federative secession: neither authorized nor prohibited (like secession from a unitary state)
- 2.1 Federative secession cannot be prohibited a priori
- 2.2 The impossible licitness of unilateral federative secession
- 3. The impossibility of imposing a legal sanction on federative secession
- 3.1 The distinction between federal intervention and federal execution
- 3.2 The Civil War, or the division of the union institutionalized by war
- 3 Are federalism and secession really incompatible?: JORGE CAGIAO Y CONDE
- 1. General approach
- 2. Secession as seen by the theoreticians of federalism
- 3. Secession in positive law
- 4. Secession and “legal logic”
- 4 From referendum to secession – Québec’s self-determination process and its lessons: DAVE GUÉNETTE AND ALAIN-G. GAGNON
- 1 The constitutional capacity of Québec’s institutions to hold a referendum – A stake little debated or opposed
- 1.1 The historical dimensions leading to referendums on the sovereignty of Québec
- 1.1.1 Referendum practices in Québec and Canada prior to the debates on secession
- 1.1.2 The 1980 and 1995 referendums on Québec sovereignty
- 1.2 The legal aspects allowing self-determination referendums in Canada
- 1.2.1 The absence of constitutional restrictions on holding referendums
- 1.2.2 Constitutional practices with respect to referendums
- 2 Québec’s constitutional ability to declare its independence – An issue far less consensual
- 2.1 The activism of federal institutions
- 2.1.1 The Reference re Secession of Québec and the conciliation of strongly diverging interests by the Supreme Court of Canada
- 2.1.2 The Clarity Act and the federal parliament’s declaration that it was both party and judge in the constitutional dispute
- 2.2 The contemporary evolution of the debate and some unanswered questions
- 2.2.1 The threshold of the popular majority required for Québec to declare independence
- 2.2.2 The ambiguity surrounding the duty to negotiate and the process of constitutional amendment
- 5 Compromise or dislocation: federal alternatives to secessionist and centralizing temptations: LUCÍA PAYERO-LÓPEZ
- 1. Federalism in Spain
- 1.1 The federal projects of political parties in the central state
- 1.2 The federal projects of political parties at the regional level
- 2. Federalism and the right to self-determination
- Notes about the Contributors
- Series Index
N° 1 – François Charbonneau et Martin Nadeau (dir.), L’histoire à l’épreuve de la diversité culturelle, 173 p., 2008.
N° 2 – Hugo Cyr, Canadian Federalism and Treaty Powers. Organic Constitutionalism at Work, 305 p., 2009.
N° 3 – Ricard Zapata-Barrero (ed.), Immigration and Self-government of Minority Nations, 177 p., 2009.
N° 4 – Ferran Requejo, Fédéralisme multinational et pluralisme de valeurs. Le cas espagnol, 199 p., 2009.
N° 5 – Charles Gaucher et Stéphane Vibert, Les Sourds : aux origines d’une identité plurielle, 228 p., 2010.
N° 6 – Christophe Parent, Le concept d’État fédéral multinational. Essai sur l’union des peuples, 495 p., 2011.
N° 7 – Daniel Innerarity, The Transformation of Politics. Governing in the Age of Complex Societies, 154 p., 2010.
N° 8 – Jacques Beauchemin (dir.), Mémoire et démocratie en occident. Concurrence des mémoires ou concurrence victimaire, 136 p., 2011.
N° 9 – Alain-G. Gagnon et Ferran Requejo (dir.), Nations en quête de reconnaissance. Regards croisés Québec-Catalogne, 241 p., 2011.
N° 10 – Michel Seymour et Guy Laforest (dir.), Le fédéralisme multinational. Un modèle viable ?, 343 p., 2011.
N° 11 – Ramón Máiz, The Inner Frontier, 223 p., 2012.
N° 12 – Louis-Philippe Lampron, La hiérarchie des droits. Convictions religieuses et droits fondamentaux au Canada, 396 p., 2012.
N° 13 – Min Reuchamps, L’avenir du fédéralisme en Belgique et au Canada. Quand les citoyens en parlent, 264 p., 2011.
N° 14 – Victor Armony y Stéphanie Rousseau (eds.), Diversidad cultural, desigualdades y democratización en América Latina, 281 p., 2012.
N° 15 – Chantal Maillé, Greg M. Nielsen & Daniel Salée (eds.), Revealing Democracy. Secularism and Religion in Liberal Democratic States, 176 p., 2013.
N° 16 – Eduardo J. Ruiz-Vieytez, United in Diversity? On Cultural Diversity, Democracy and Human Rights, 131 p., 2014.
N° 17 – Bernard Gagnon et Jackie F. Steele (dir.), Concilier démocratie et diversité, 222 p., 2014.
N° 18 – Alain-G. Gagnon and José María Sauca (eds.), Negotiating Diversity. Identity, Pluralism and Democracy, 260 p., 2014.
N° 19 – Jorge Cagiao y Conde et Alfredo Gómez-Muller (dir.), Le multiculturalisme et la reconfiguration de l’unité et de la diversité dans les démocraties contemporaines, 303 p., 2014.←197 | 198→
N° 20 – Guy Laforest, Interpreting Quebec’s Exile Within the Federation. Selected Political Essays, 206 p., 2014.
N° 21 – Dolores Morondo Taramundi and Eduardo Ruiz Vieytez, Diversidad religiosa, integración social y acomodos. Un análisis desde la realidad local en el caso vasco, 210 p., 2014.
N° 22 – Gérard Bouchard, L’Europe en quête d’Européens. Pour un nouveau rapport entre Bruxelles et les nations, 224 p., 2017.
N° 23 – Stéphan Gervais, Raffaele Iacovino and Mary Anne Poutanen (eds.),Engaging with Diversity. Multidisciplinary Reflections on Plurality from Québec, 224 p., 2018.
N° 24 – Richard Nadeau, Éric Bélanger, Michael S. Lewis-Beck, Mathieu Turgeon, François Gélineau, María Celeste Ratto, Elecciones Latinoamericanas. Selección y Cambio de Voto, 270 p., 2019.
N° 25 – Jorge Cagiao y Conde et Alain-G. Gagnon (dir.), Fédéralisme et Sécession, 204 p., 2019.
N° 26 – Jorge Cagiao y Conde and Alain-G. Gagnon (Eds.), Federalism and Secession, 198 p., 2021.