Cases, Concepts and Challenges
Edited By Esther Berner and Philipp Gonon
Understanding today’s Vocational Education and Training (VET) systems requires a comprehension of the rise and development, i.e. of the foundations of topical VET. This book provides a comparative view of its development in Europe. The contributions of renowned authors give insight into conceptual questions, cases and challenges in this field.
The Case of the Norwegian VET – Origins and Early Development 1860–1930
Abstract: The issue of vocational education and training (VET) has not been much related to a possible Nordic model of VET. Instead, the differences between the Nordic countries in VET policies and VET institutions have been emphasized in most VET typologies. Systematic comparative studies of the historical formation of VET institutions and policies in the Nordic countries have not yet been carried out. This article traces the origins of this vocational modernization process in Norway in the period 1860–1930. Central is the identification of sequences and timing of the development as well as driving forces, key stakeholders and evolving interest coalitions and political regimes behind the development of VET. Key findings are that employers were divided when it came to VET issues and that the liberal state was not suitable for overcoming collective action problems. Education policies were more attuned to national building and general education than vocational training. Industrial training remained the business of industry.
The Nordic countries are often analysed as a more or less integrated region with its own historical trajectory and traits. But as far as VET is concerned, the Nordic countries are viewed as being quite different. The Danish system is usually associated with the dual system or collective skills formation system (Greinert 1988, Busemeyer & Trampusch 2012), while the Swedish VET is most often seen as being in the exclusive responsibility of the state (Greinert 1988). It has been maintained that the Scandinavian countries have...
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