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History of Vocational Education and Training in Europe

Cases, Concepts and Challenges


Edited By Esther Berner and Philipp Gonon

Understanding today’s Vocational Education and Training (VET) systems requires a comprehension of the rise and development, i.e. of the foundations of topical VET. This book provides a comparative view of its development in Europe. The contributions of renowned authors give insight into conceptual questions, cases and challenges in this field.

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The Integration of Female-Dominated VET Programmes in Health and Social Care into the Common Collective Skills System in Norway



Abstract: This chapter analyses the historical development of education and training in health and social care in Norway, a traditionally school-based education programme that in 1994 was included into the apprenticeship system. The programme as a whole attracts about 25% of all young women attending upper secondary school each year, and it is the largest of all VET programmes. The integration of this field of education has resulted in a major extension of the apprenticeship-based VET system in Norway. However, the main characteristics of the programmes in health and social care remain more or less the same in many respects. Apprenticeship is practiced in a very different way than in the artisan and industrial sectors and is driven mainly by the state, not by local employers. Due to its large size, the inclusion of health and social care with its actors and identities into the apprenticeship system contributes to significant changes in the collective skills system.

1.  Introduction

The Norwegian VET model is difficult to categorise. It contains significant features drawn from a statist, comprehensive school system, from a collective skills system and from liberal systems (Michelsen, Olsen & Høst 2014). In this way, it can be characterised as a hybrid system or as an amalgamation of all three models. Although today’s Norwegian VET is in principle apprenticeship-based across all sectors of working life, it has retained a strong school-based element for the first two years, while different training practices influenced by...

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