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Linking Research and Training in Internationalization of Teacher Education with the PEERS Program: Issues, Case Studies and Perspectives

Edited By Jean-Luc Gilles

The PEERS program proposes international exchanges adapted to the context of teacher training institutions wishing to take advantage of internationalization in order to link training, research, and practice. PEERS is based on the completion of Research and Innovation (R&I) projects during the academic year, during which international groups of professors and students from teacher training partner institutions collaborate remotely as well as during two placements of one week. For the students, the PEERS program aims to develop competencies in distance collaboration with the help of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the management of intercultural groups, and the continuous improvement of their activities through reflective thinking and the spirit of research. For the professors the PEERS program aims to better link research and training, to reinforce their skills in the management of international research projects and to foster opportunities for international publications.

The aim of this collective book is to give an overview of the Issues, case studies and perspectives of the PEERS program. The first section entitled "Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges for the Internationalization of Teacher Training in a Globalized, Multicultural, and Connected World", focuses on the foundations and general features of PEERS projects, as well as the context of globalization in the intercultural and connected world in which it is situated.

The second section, "Case Studies and Lessons Learned from the PEERS Project in Southern Countries" constitutes a series of chapters presenting case studies on PEERS projects focused on innovation and cooperation in the developing world. The third section, "Results of Research-Oriented PEERS Projects," considers the results from PEERS projects that have enabled the implementation of theoretical and practical educational research, generally taking the form of small-case research studies or innovations in the design of teaching units. Finally, in the conclusion we propose to present the key points of the three sections that make up this book "Linking Research and Training in Internationalization of Teacher Education with the PEERS Program: Issues, Case Studies and Perspectives".

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Chapter 8: Learning Sequences About Water (Lucy Clavel / Fulgence Idani)

Lucy Clavel* and Fulgence Idani** –

* University of Teacher Education of State of Vaud, Switzerland

** University of Koudougou, Burkina Faso

Chapter 8: Learning Sequences About Water


Mankind has to contend with a string of concerns, but water remains one of the major challenges of our century, present and future. The objective of this study, in the context of sustainable development, is to study the issue of water with pupils in Switzerland and Burkina Faso: representation, cycle, cost, management, transportation, preservation, hygiene and rituals. The aim is to obtain different perspectives about water, using questionnaires and learning sequences for students, and an interview guide for educators and resource persons. This study, which has made it possible to assess the conditions and differences in teaching between the two countries, has enriched the knowledge of both teams. It has revealed that children are enthusiastic about exchanges between them and able to change behaviour patterns. Furthermore, aware of the importance of the resource, they are capable of taking the initiative when they are involved in the reflection and action.


Water is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, transparent, insipid and liquid body at atmospheric pressure of 0° to 100°C. Its chemical formula is H2O and 97.4 % of the Earth’s water is to be found in ocean reservoirs; 2.05 % is in ice caps and glaciers; The remaining 0.55 % is distributed among the ground water, lakes, rivers and soil. Finally, less than 0.01 % is found in the atmosphere and the living world (Le Robert, 2003; Pierre, G. and Fernand V., 2009). It is unevenly distributed on the surface of the Globe;←141 | 142→ some countries like Switzerland have it in abundance, others like Burkina Faso suffer water stress.

The project for exchanging experiences in social networks (PEERS), initiated by the University of Teacher Education of State of Vaud (HEP VAUD), set up a link between two teams: the HEP Vaud in Switzerland and the Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS) in Burkina Faso. The study focuses on the subject of water in the light of sustainable development: representation, cycle, cost, management, transportation, preservation, hygiene and rituals. It offers different perspectives on water between the two countries.

1. The problem at hand

The issue of water is a concern for all governments worldwide. In Burkina Faso, a continental country in West Africa, 79.6 % of the total population practice rainfed agriculture (Ministry for Economy and Finance, 2007). In this context of climate change where rainfall is random, this population exposed to various risks including food risks, is mostly rural. They are therefore forced to develop coping strategies (Idani, 2014b).

In 2010, 95.5 % of the urban population and 75.6 % of the rural population had access to drinking water, an average of 81.2 % of the total population. However, there are disparities between regions: 92.2 % of the Central Region enjoys access, while the figure for the centre-west stands at 37.1 %. The disparities between the cities and rural areas are high: 9 in every ten households in the city have access to drinking water, with 8 out of ten connected to the network of the National Office for Water and Sanitation (ONEA). In the countryside, barely one in two households used drinking water, 40 % depending on wells in 2010 (SCADD, 2010). In 2012, the drinking water coverage, which was 63 % in the rural areas and 83 % in urban areas (Ministry of Water, Hydraulic Developments and Sanitation, MEAHA; 2013), had increased to 63.54 % and 86.2 % respectively in 2013 (Ministry of Economy and Finance, MEF, 2013).←142 | 143→

In terms of sanitation, only 19 % of the people take their waste to dumps or have them removed; 67.3 % of non-regulatory dumps were to be found in rural areas against 38.6 % in urban areas (SCADD, 2010). The great flood of the 1st of September 2009 in Ouagadougou revealed the urgency of the situation.

In rural areas, the rate of access to household sanitation rose from 3.1 % in 2012 to 6 % in 2013, an increase of 2.9 points; in urban areas, it was 29.1 % in 2013 against 27 % in 2012 (MEF, 2013).

This gloomy picture is one of the consequences of poverty: 43.9 % of Burkina Faso’s population lived below the poverty line in 2009 (SCADD, 2010) and 40.10 % in 2014: according to the National Technical Secretariat of the SCADD.

On the other side of the ocean, Switzerland, the rates of access to drinking water and sanitation stand at 100 %.

This bi-colour table justifies the appropriateness of the question of water with the children, future builders of our States. Education being the best gateway for behavioural change (Idani, 2009), the main question we ask ourselves is:

“Can a teaching sequence on water have an impact on the representations of daily use of water by the pupils?”

2. Methodology

The goal being to contribute to better water management by pupils, both teams, Swiss and Burkinabe, composed of teachers and student trainees, therefore developed questionnaires and learning sequences for the pupils and an interview guide for educators and resource persons. After a diagnostic assessment to determine the prerequisites, the learning sequences were administered before the final evaluation.

The students were able to attend in a reciprocal manner the lessons given by their colleagues either in Burkina or Switzerland. They were←143 | 144→ able to see the differences in teachings and had informative discussions with school officials and resource persons from both countries.

Diagnostic assessments, teaching sequences and post-tests

These activities in Burkina concerned the classes of grade 1 (2P in CH), grade 2 (3P in CH), grade 3 (4P in CH) and grade 4 (5P in CH) and in Switzerland an infant class and a 3P class. Diagnostic assessments made it possible to take stock of the prerequisites and the final evaluations revealed the theoretical knowledge of the students after the learning sequences on water.

2.1 Implementation in Burkina

The activities were carried out in mid-April 2013 in the presence of the Swiss team and concerned the districts of Ouagadougou No. XII and Kokologho (45 km from Ouagadougou), making it possible to compare schools in urban and rural environments. The classes involved were: in Kokologho those of grade 1 (8–9 years), grade 2 (10–11 years) and grade 4 (12–13 years) and grade 5 (12–13 years); and in Ouagadougou, those of grade 2 (10–11 years) and grade 3 (11–12 years).

A total of 180 students were involved in the experiment, 30 in each of the six identified classes.

In the diagnostic assessments and final evaluations, the questionnaire was first used to assess the representation of water by children, its availability, accessibility and management, before discussing its sanitation or use.

The training sequences (four), with the theoretical course and the experiences, were proposed to teachers for amendment before being rolled out.

The goal was to instil in students the concept of their own personal responsibility through the seemingly trivial daily actions they carry out, and to show them that they can change their behaviour to ensure the proper management and quality of the water they use.←144 | 145→

The interview guide made it possible to interact with teachers in relation to teaching methods and with resource persons for the knowledge of rituals.

2.2 Implementation in Switzerland

The project was conducted in two classes taking into account the level of the students at the beginning of December with 5th year pupils in the Harmos system (Intercantonal Agreement on Harmonisation of Compulsory Education) and in the second half year with 4th year pupils in the Harmos system.

After the diagnostic assessment, the water cycle and water types were addressed through an experiment, before they were asked to draw the water cycle or complete it.

Regarding accessibility/the tap, the water cycle before and after the tap was studied, in small groups and the students tried to reconstruct the water cycle. Some performed group work on the water cycle. The work was then pooled, making it possible to follow the two real cycles. Finally, the drinking water circuit was observed, and the functioning of a water purification plant.

The use and management of water were broached using empty bricks and a table to be completed, so that students become aware of how much water they consume daily.

The notion of payment and means of saving water were also addressed. Discussions in groups of pupils on the issue made it possible to tackle the difference in the use of water in Switzerland and Burkina Faso.

After discussing the different uses of water outside the household: breeding, crops, agriculture, etc., a treatment plant was studied step by step using drawings.

Finally, a final evaluation made it possible to test our pupils on the lesson to observe what had been learnt during the sequence.←145 | 146→

3. Results

3.1 Results of the diagnostic assessment

Definition or representation of water

In Burkina, the results of the diagnostic assessment reveal that 41.67 % of urban pupils against 25 % of rural pupils, i.e. an average of 30.35 % of the surveyed pupils were able to define water properly. The explanation lies, for the urban pupils, in media access, and for the rural pupils, in the sociocultural context: the level of expression in French, the official language, being very low.

In Switzerland, as the students were younger, it was a matter of ascertaining what water means for them.

Table 1: Water representation by Swiss students.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland 2013.

The majority (13/20) represent water as a drink or source of life.

Availability and period of water scarcity

While in Switzerland drinking water is always available, nearly three quarters of respondents (73.33) in Burkina say they do not have it all year. This reality is more acutely felt in Kokologho (79.16 %) than in Ouagadougou (61.67 %); these rates confirm the fairly-distributed unavailability of water. For those who have permanent access, this is explained by the size of the urban facilities or the location of the residence near a permanent water table in rural areas.←146 | 147→

The water shortage in Kokologho is also due to the lack of a home water supply system and inadequate standpipes and wells under high pressure.

In Burkina Faso, the lack of water is felt especially during the dry season which lasts for 8/12 months (85 %); between March and May, a period when heat and evaporation peaks are reached, when water consumption needs increase and the dams dry up. Suffering is higher among rural children (88.33 %) than among urban citizens (78.33 %).

In Switzerland, 16/20 children feel they do not always have it when they need it.

The origin of water and the source of supply

Water comes from the sky or rainfall according to pupils. The surprise is that 85.83 % of rural pupils found the source of the water against only 55 % of those living in an urban environment; Their advantage comes from the daily observation of natural phenomena. They often wash in the rain, or collect the water for drinking, washing clothes or dishes. Furthermore, by participating in water collection, they are well informed about at least one part of the water cycle. This is not the case for urban dwellers who have a tap at home.

Table 2: source of water according to the young Swiss.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland 2013.

In Switzerland, for the majority, water is found in lakes, streams, rivers, seas and mountains.

The majority of respondents who source their water from wells where the water is free (61.67 %) come from Kokologho; in the city, the water supply must be paid for and it comes from the tap. The answers are in line with the reality of each and is linked to the poverty of the parents.←147 | 148→

Table 3: source of water supply in Burkina.


Source : Field surveys, Burkina 2013.

Location of the water point

Altogether, 81.66 % of the surveyed pupils source their water near their home; water is therefore within reach of the consumer, even if 19.34 % of respondents travel at least 2 km to fetch it. This constitutes a major difficulty for populations, including the pupils who are often solicited for this task.

Table 4: geographical location of the water supply in Burkina place.


Source : Field surveys, Burkina 2013.←148 | 149→

While in Switzerland, it appears that the availability of water is permanent and the average number of taps available, at the pupils’ home, is three; they walk ten steps to use it at home or at school.

Table 5: number of taps to which Swiss children have access at home.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland 2013.

Knowledge of the cost and principle of paying for water

Burkina Faso pupils who live in an urban environment (78.33 %) seem to be more aware of the fact that their parents pay for water, compared with an average of 20.84 % in the rural areas. These figures are consistent with reality because parents often send their children to pay the water bills.

As regards the cost of water, it varies according to the recipient used and the time of year. But, in general, a 10-litre bucket of water costs 5 CFA francs1, a can of 20 litres of water 10 CFA francs and a 200 litre drum 60 CFA if one owns the container. Home water delivery multiplies the price by n depending on the availability of the commodity and the time of year. As the Swiss children are very young, this question was not asked.

The representation system in which each group of students lives therefore influences the answers. While 98.33 % of pupils in the capital Ouagadougou, accept that it is necessary to pay for water, 94.16 % of pupils in Kokologho refuse to accept this fact. For the first group, water is scarce and cannot be free because it is treated and sent to the homes. For the latter, water is life and in this sense, whether one is rich or poor, one cannot be deprived of it; paying for water is a violation of human rights. This view is governed by traditional values. Indeed, when a stranger arrives in a home, they are first offered water to drink before the subject←149 | 150→ of the visit is addressed. According to a mossi saying: “you do not need to ask for water, it is given”.

In Switzerland, of 20 students, 9 know that their parents pay for water, 3 are unaware of this and 8 have no opinion.

Water management

Almost all of the respondents (98.33 %) could name at least one use of water. The rural pupils are in the lead with 99.16 %, while 96.67 % of urban pupils could name a use. Water is part of the children’s day to day life: showering, washing clothes and dishes, watering plants, cleaning the house, ensuring a healthy living environment, drinking, etc. Therefore, children are aware that water is an indispensable element in their everyday life.

Table 6: Water use by Swiss children.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland 2013.

Swiss children consider water as a drink first and then as a means of hygiene; the other uses are secondary.

In Switzerland 13 out of 20 pupils admit that they waste water and 7 think that they do not.

The majority of the Burkinabe sample (71.11 %) claim to use more than two buckets of water per day at home. The proportion of those who use more than two buckets a day in Kokologho is higher than that of respondents in Ouagadougou (79.17 % against 55 %).

According to these figures, there seems to be a paradox: the majority of children use more than two buckets a day. But empirical observations corroborate the fact that children in urban areas shower on average twice a day and those in rural areas once a day every evening and very rarely in←150 | 151→ the morning. However, we can qualify this by taking into account the fact that pupils in rural areas water the animals and do the laundry themselves.

Water transportation and child participation

We observe an improvement in living conditions; 75 % of respondents claim to carry water with a cart, especially in rural areas (85.83 %). These carts, manufactured locally, make it possible to carry 4–6 cans of 20 litres of water or two 200-litre drums. They also allow the transport of goods to the market or the mill. However, people still carry water on their head (15 %), but they are very often near the water point.

The Swiss are all connected to the water company networks.

The pupils are involved in the “water chore”: 86.67 % of rural pupils against 76.67 % of urban pupils or an average of 83.33 % of pupils are expected to fetch water. Indeed, in Africa, from an early age (from 7 years) children are given certain chores, including fetching the family’s water supply, caring for livestock and farm work. But very often, the effort and the work demanded of the child are proportional to their physical capabilities. This is inconceivable in Switzerland.

Transportation containers and water storage

Traditional water transport containers such as gourds and water pots (6.67) are tending to disappear; 70 % of respondents report using the 20 litre container, originally containing oil and costing 500 FCFA. The second most used container is the 200-litre barrel (15.15 %), for an average price of 10,000 FCFA. The water pot (6.67 %) is used in rural areas and the bucket (06.11 %) mainlyre in the city by those who have a home tap. Water is above all stored in water pots in the rural areas (76.67 %), in cans (45 %) or barrels (20 %) in the city.←151 | 152→

Table 7: water conservation at home by Swiss pupils.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland, 2013.

Some preschool children do not know how water is stored.

Water purification and wastewater treatment

Over two thirds of respondents in Burkina Faso (70 %) managed to suggest at least one way to make water drinkable. Only 1/3, representing the youngest students (grade 1) is unfamiliar with the process, as is the case for the Swiss pupils who are very young and had no opinion.

Table 8: recognition of drinking water.


Source : Field surveys, Switzerland, 2013.

In the field of sanitation, awareness-raising continues to be necessary in Burkina, as 2.78 % of the respondents do not wash their containers before putting water in them and wastewater is mismanaged by 77.78 % of pupils (Ouagadougou, 81.67 %; Kokologho, 75.83 %): they are generally poured into the street, because the drainage system is inadequate in the city of Ouagadougou and non-existent in Kokologho. Officially it is estimated that the sewerage coverage rate for the capital stands at less than 5 %, which means that diseases related to water and lack of hygiene in the children’s living environment, such as malaria and diarrhoea, are frequent.

The treatment of wastewater and excreta in Burkina Faso is 10 % and 27 % respectively in 2012 (MEAHA, 2013).←152 | 153→

Water use in rituals

In Switzerland, of the 20 students, 6 recognise that water is used in religion in a special way, 9 claim the opposite and 5 have no opinion.

In Burkina, the population practises religious syncretism. However, it appears that the Muslim religion is dominant among our respondents, followed by the Christian religion and finally animism. 76.67 % of children know that water is used in their religion (91.67 % in the cities, 69.17 % in rural areas).

Water plays a special role in the rituals of all religions in Burkina Faso. It is used for christenings among Christians, to perform their ablutions before prayer by Muslims, to greet, ask for forgiveness, and make a complaint to the ancestors in the traditional religion. Water is also a symbol of fertility in some traditions.

It should be noted that the Mossi are the ethnic majority in the sample (82.78 %) since the investigation took place on the “Mossi plateau”.

The respondents gave incorrect answers (92.22 %) on the use of water in ethnic rituals (81.67 % for urban and 97.5 % for rural pupils). In their defence, we can state that in Africa, children are not involved in the rituals, it is a matter for grown-ups. However, in all ethnic groups, water is regularly used to either:

welcome strangers;

make complaints to the ancestors;

bathe the deceased;

cast spells or ward off bad luck, etc.

Traditionally, water can be used for good or evil.

After the diagnostic assessment, the children participated actively in the learning sequences.

2.2 Administration of the learning sequences

In Switzerland, two weeks were required for the two future teachers.

In Burkina Faso, two teachers in Ouagadougou and four in Kokologho prepared and delivered learning sequences over three weeks.←153 | 154→

For each lesson, the teachers relied on visual aids and experiments: boiling water at 100°C that evaporates and forms water droplets on the lid and falls back into the pot. In some sequences the class-group went on field trips to places that foster a better understanding of the concept or phenomenon. The method used is the active method, with considerable involvement of students in the discovery of concepts and awareness of the various issues.

3. Results of the final evaluation

In Switzerland, drawings and images were used to help the children to understand. The final evaluation shows a good level of understanding of the subject after administration of the learning sequence.

In Ouagadougou and Kokologho some questions were deleted or modified compared to their wording in the diagnostic assessment to discover the children’s capacity to transpose the information they had learned.

The results of the final evaluation are satisfactory.

Definition and availability of water

From 30.55 % at the time of the initial assessment, the rate of correct answers increased to 86.67 %. These results show that 4/5 of the pupil respondents now know how to define water in a satisfactory manner.

Water is not readily available according to 75 % of urban and 96.67 % of rural children, or an average 89.44 % of the pupils because the sources of supply of drinking water on both sites, Ouagadougou and Kokologho, are inadequate. The proportion of pupils who say they have constant access to water (10.56 %) are probably close to water sources, have a tap at home or regularly set aside a substantial stock of water supplies. 99.44 % (98.33 % for urban and 100 % for rural pupils) claim←154 | 155→ to be aware that everyone does not have easy access to water; 80 % of pupils now know that the availability of water is linked to several factors including rainfall, climate and vegetation and the geographical location of the country.

Accessibility, cost and management of water

The lesson on the water cycle has been thoroughly assimilated, but awareness must continue because 12.22 % gave an unsatisfactory answer to this question.

While everyone agrees that water is vital, 73.89 % also accept that its transformation into drinking water and its distribution have a cost, and that the consumer should bear at least part of the costs in order learn to manage it well.

Almost all of the respondents (97.22 %) are familiar with the multiple uses of water and know how to manage this precious liquid.

Most of the pupils (66.67 %) answered that wasting water will deprive the community of water at some point. The rational use of this commodity is a sign of our personal responsibility. The awareness-raising efforts must continue because 27.78 % of pupils agree that their parents waste water. This is interesting since it could mean that these pupils pay attention to the consumption of water at home. We can therefore expect a change in behaviour.

The children (74.44 %) made resolutions to reduce water wastage in school by raising awareness, by storing water in a clean jar in class so as not to go individually and at any time to the pump or tap; 75.56 % of pupils think they can reduce the amount of water they waste in the home.

To better manage water at home, ¾ of the respondents made relevant proposals: awareness, water storage, closing the tap after use. Children are therefore capable of imagination and creativity to solve a problem brought to their attention.←155 | 156→

Water purification, water sanitation

Approximately 78.89 % of our surveyed pupils now know how to make water drinkable, either by using chemicals or by simple decantation or by using certain natural products.

79.44 % of pupils are now aware of the importance of always properly washing containers before filling them with water to ensure that it remains drinkable. However almost 21 % gave wrong answers. This is an invitation to go over hygiene measures in the classroom once again in the context of future hygiene lessons.

As for sanitation, <897 more than half of our sample, or 57.22 % was able to answer that wastewater must be drained into cesspools, which is quite satisfactory, although the available cesspools and gutters are insufficient. 90.56 % of pupils now know that throwing rubbish into the street is a source of disease. But 42.78 % have not yet understood the message, to go by their answers because the family environment has a big impact on the representations and behaviour patterns of the pupils.

The gutter provided for rainwater, is unfortunately considered by many as the overflow of wastewater, 31.11 % see no danger in draining wastewater into gutters. But by discharging dirty water and solid waste into the gutter, the latter become blocked, causing diseases (68.89 % of respondents) or generate additional costs to make the water drinkable.

Water use in rituals

The vast majority of pupils (72.22 %) were able to give examples of the use of water in different ethnic or religious rituals of their community.←156 | 157→

4. Discussion and Conclusion

The Swiss colleagues noted that the planning was drawn up by an external person (supervising teacher) not involved the life of the class. The lessons were based solely on oral work, by extension, on learning by heart and no teacher sought to appropriate it, although there was some consultation and modification of certain points to reflect the level of the pupils. There are strong similarities from one lesson to another, the same phrases, word for word: “Water is life.” “Do not waste water.” “Water allows us to live and to wash ourselves.” and “For us, water is not available all year.”

In Switzerland, we proposed an experiment to understand the water cycle, we drew pictures with them, questioned and distributed diagrams to be completed, etc. In Burkina, there was a drawing/diagram already fully drawn on the board that had been done in advance by the teacher.

The lack of available equipment plays a major role in the choice of teaching methods. A diagram prepared in advance saves time. But by drawing it as we go along in order to better explain it, it would have put the pupil in a position of researcher and not just a spectator. The number of pupils naturally has a big influence on the teaching method. Therefore, there is much less focus on group work in our classes. With 60–100 students in the classroom and benches packed together so tightly you can hardly pass, the teacher asks for answers from those who put up their hand, and who, generally, are sitting in the front: it is impossible to interrogate everyone.

The teaching method in Burkina Faso is very different from that in Switzerland and teaching is much more based on learning by heart and standard phrases that the teacher teaches, repeats and has the pupils repeat back until they know how to repeat the phrase, even imitating the intonation of their teacher!

If we had the same number of pupils, we would probably adopt the same methods.

The colleagues in Burkina Faso welcome the discovery of another culture and friends through the trip to Switzerland and are surprised by←157 | 158→ the very small numbers of pupils in Swiss classrooms (10–20 children). They received a very rich documentation, particularly on the theme of sustainable development and participated in the International Festival of Geography (FIG, 2012) in Saint Dié des Vauges in France.

The study of water enhanced their teaching capacity and has enabled some to defend a dissertation on the issue of sustainable development.

Comparing a developed country where water is controlled with another underdeveloped country that suffers from water stress is rewarding.

We would like to emphasise the excellent atmosphere that prevailed throughout this project, both among the pupils (from Switzerland and Burkina Faso) and teachers (from Switzerland and Burkina Faso). The very high quality of the sequences rolled out and the opportunity for students from both countries to attend lessons reciprocally proved very beneficial for all. It is always possible to tell, to explain how the teaching conditions are in another country, but nothing will ever replace a classroom presence in another country.

Education remains the best way of training in sustainable development, which is a concept that is unfortunately little known by the preschool and elementary school actors in Burkina Faso (Idani, 2014A).

Water is a commodity that can be preserved in terms of quantity and quality. More effort must be made to save water. The monitoring and maintenance of the pipelines at individual and collective level would help avoid leaks. Consumption can also be reduced through awareness. Some techniques that are far and few between, such as the drip, need to be brought into more general use. It still seems difficult to fight against pollution, not for technical reasons but for financial reasons and lack of awareness (Baud, 1998). In case of shortage, the population is forced to abandon their habitat.

Migration is one of the most striking phenomena of globalisation. In the past, mobility was an essential factor in the adaptation of the populations of West Africa to changes in their environment (Ki-Zerbo, 2013).

On the “central plateau” in Burkina Faso and two other sites in immigration areas in the north, the greed of the producers, human←158 | 159→ pressure on the area (47 % of market gardeners do not have land on the shores of lakes), expertise in the practice of market gardening and finally the filling of the lake (recognised by 90 % of market gardeners) determine the mobility of producers (Ouédraogo FC. & al., 2012). But migration is not always beneficial. A study in Brazil shows that population migration caused by climate change may aggravate the vulnerability of migrants (Alisson F.B. and Ulisses E.C.C., 2011).

In the context of sustainable development, it seems important to explain, for and with the pupils, the need to consider individual actions in their articulation with decisions and actions within the social, political and collective framework (Nathalie F. (2011). The inaccessibility of drinking water or lack of water could prove a disaster for mankind, which is why children should be aware of this risk from an early age. Demographic growth will only increase the water wars. As water is a finished product, How will our children live tomorrow if we do not train them or do not take the necessary decisions incumbent on us today?

5. Recommendations

In future, both teams would like to have correspondents with the same profile, who can live together during the reciprocal visits.

The correspondence between pupils allows them to directly exchange testimonials, to get to know each other and understand the culture of each other in order to forge mutual acceptance.

For the next PEERS we are thinking of addressing the subject of waste management with the children.←159 | 160→ ←160 | 161→

1 One euro = 655.5 CFA.