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Collapse and Rebirth of Cultural Heritage

The Case of Syria and Iraq


Edited By Lorenzo Kamel

Cultural heritage and illicit trafficking in the Middle East are two key topics of our time.  The  book  sheds  light  on  both  aspects,  and  identifies  the  need  to  democratize  cultural heritage, by giving greater control to local communities. It also investigates the link between local hotbeds of conflict and violence in countries such as Syria and Iraq,  as  well  as  war  economics,  transnational  criminal  networks  and  the  politics  of  deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage. Finally, the chapters analyze the impact  of  non-violent  and  violent  non-state  actors,  fragile  states,  forced  migration,  environmental  degradation,  as  well  as  how  local  and  international  institutions  have  reacted to the dramatic events which the region and its inhabitants have experienced in recent years
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Figure 2.1: Destruction of the Old City of Aleppo, situation in November 2010 and October 2014

Figure 2.2: Damage assessment for the city of Aleppo

Figure 2.3: Estimate of the increase in damages to Aleppo’s city infrastructure from 2014 to 2017 (million US dollars)

Figure 2.4: Old City of Aleppo: damage to historic buildings

Figure 2.5: The three central areas where the damage assessment was carried out

Figure 2.6: Aerial photo of the Great Mosque after it was damaged

Figure 2.7: The destruction of the minaret of the Great Mosque, 24 April 2013

Figure 2.8: The Great Mosque of Aleppo: damage to the exterior and interior

Figure 2.9: Historic Suqs area: general damage assessment

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