Collateral adjectives are Latinate relational adjectives, typically meaning ‘of’ or ‘pertaining to ...’, such as paternal (base noun: father), vernal (base noun: spring), etc. The existence of these adjectives poses serious problems to form-based approaches to morphology because of their apparent derivational status, they provide us with extreme cases where these adjectives and base nouns are formally unconnected.
The author shows that the meaning-based approach has real benefits not only in the theoretical analysis of them but also in their lexicographical treatment and in the description of the sociolinguistics of their use.
In addition, after comparing English and Japanese, the author explains how, in English, the knowledge of these adjectives is not acquired automatically with literacy and hence has come to matter in sociolinguistics terms.
2. Collateral Adjectives and English Morphology 11
CHAPTER 2 Collateral Adjectives and English Morphology 2.1. Introduction The aim of this chapter is to consider how we should analyse CAs in terms of morphology. We shall start by checking some of the basic terminology and concepts of morphology in 2.2. Among the terms and concepts to be discussed in this chapter are the morpheme, morpho- logical derivation, paradigm, suppletion, and the division between inflectional and derivational morphology. This process makes it clear that some kind of meaning-based approach to morphology should be adopted if CAs are to be appropriately treated in English morphology. In 2.3, we shall consider the concept of suppletion in morphology. First, previous studies about suppletion are extensively reviewed. The review is divided into three parts: (a) studies in America before the 1970s, (b) studies in Europe before the 1970s, and (c) studies since the 1970s. In the last part, we shall see two important lines of approach to the concept of suppletion that have been developed recently, namely Natural Morphology and paradigm-based approach to morphology. In 2.4, we shall examine the problem of morphosemantic transparency and opaqueness in detail. As one of the first scholars to give attention to CAs, the work of Ullmann is reviewed with special reference to the Saussurean dichotomy of motivatedness. My own version of paradigm-based analysis of CAs is presented in 2.5. I base my analysis on the Paradigmaticity Hierarchy founded on Cruse’s (1986) concept of a ‘proportional series’. It is shown that several different degrees and kinds of...
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