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Collateral Adjectives and Related Issues

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Tetsuya Koshiishi

This monograph constitutes an example of a meaning-based approach to English morphology, which has far-reaching implications on lexicographical, sociolinguistic, and contrastive studies.
Collateral adjectives are Latinate relational adjectives, typically meaning ‘of’ or ‘pertaining to ...’, such as paternal (base noun: father), vernal (base noun: spring), etc. The existence of these adjectives poses serious problems to form-based approaches to morphology because of their apparent derivational status, they provide us with extreme cases where these adjectives and base nouns are formally unconnected.
The author shows that the meaning-based approach has real benefits not only in the theoretical analysis of them but also in their lexicographical treatment and in the description of the sociolinguistics of their use.
In addition, after comparing English and Japanese, the author explains how, in English, the knowledge of these adjectives is not acquired automatically with literacy and hence has come to matter in sociolinguistics terms.

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5. Sociolinguistics and Contrastive Studies of Collateral Adjectives 235

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CHAPTER 5 Sociolinguistics and Contrastive Studies of Collateral Adjectives 5.1. Introduction Remember that CAs are defined as ‘Latinate suppletive RAdjs’. One of the important characteristics of CAs is therefore their Latinateness. This is probably because of the mixed nature of the English lexis. As is well known, the history of the English lexis can be regarded primar- ily as that of lexical borrowing. Among the source languages of Eng- lish’s lexical borrowing, Romance languages are by far the largest providers. The literature on the influence of Romance languages on English is copious. See Bradley (1970), Pyles and Algeo (1970), Den- ning and Leben (1995), and Dalton-Puffer (1996), for example. The aim of this chapter is therefore twofold. Firstly, we shall con- sider the sociolinguistic or stylistic aspects of CAs. By definition, CAs are Latinate RAdjs standing in suppletion to their BNs; therefore, they belong to the vocabulary layer of ‘Neo-Latin basis’ (Marchand, 1969: 7). Since this vocabulary layer is known as a sociolinguistically ele- vated layer of vocabulary, it can function as a class divider in the Eng- lish-speaking world. We shall see how English-speaking people ac- quire knowledge about CAs and about Latinate vocabulary in general. Secondly, we shall provide contrastive studies between English and Japanese. Kajima (1976), Koshiishi (2002), Morioka (2004), among others point out that a similar multi-layered lexis is observed in Japa- nese as well.152 Note that Britain and Japan are both island coun- 152 I am grateful to Shigeo Yuasa, who drew my attention to...

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