Creativity in Science and Art
Edited By Sixto J. Castro and Alfredo Marcos
1. Introduction ALFREDO MARCOS and SIXTO J. CASTRO 9
Introduction ALFREDO MARCOS and SIXTO J. CASTRO One of the hallmarks of modernity is the search for autonomy. Nation states emerge, independent from the papacy and the empire, and within them, the classical division of powers appears. Individual subjects are also demanding their autonomy from po- litical power. They become autonomous citizens. This enlargement of autonomy oc- curred in the sphere of culture as well. Human reason, allegedly, abandoned its reli- ance on tradition and authority and became an autonomous entity. We can cite Thomas Aquinas as an early precedent of this process. He affirmed the autonomy of philosophy in relation to theology. Three centuries later, Galileo sought the auton- omy of science and Machiavelli advocated for the autonomy of political reason. In the eighteenth century some British economists spoke in favour of the autonomy of economy and, in the nineteenth century, the banner of “art for art’s sake” was held up. Many authors, such as Weber and Habermas, think that modernity is character- ized precisely by the autonomy of the three major areas within the sphere of culture. Immanuel Kant was the one who established more clearly the autonomy of science, morality and art. The goal of autonomy is fulfilled in many areas during modern times. This suc- cess was perhaps even excessive. There was in many ways too much autonomy. The different states soon lifted customs and tariffs, hampered the movement of people and the goods traffic. They engaged also into endless conflicts and wars, without any possible...
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