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Challenges and Reforms in Vocational Education

Aspects of Inclusion and Exclusion

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Edited By Stefanie Stolz and Philipp Gonon

In this collected edition, globalization and its consequences on vocational education systems are described and, at the same time, combined with the question of whether new phenomena of inclusion but also of exclusion are produced. Inclusion and exclusion are differentiations that predominate in all kinds of (vocational education) systems, regardless of their national background. These terms base on the requirements of the system itself but also on shortages, particularly when supply and demand are dehiscing. Vocational education developed out of the requirement to integrate large parts of society into a broader or more extended education and, consequently, into an economic and social process. Besides the so-called «social question», gender-, status- and generation-specific characteristics and also the participation in higher education are under discussion. Depending on each country – this volume features contributions of Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Denmark, France, Finland, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA – this debate generates a different development which is described by the authors in their different research areas. Collectively, a multifaceted overall picture arises which illustrates the importance of inclusion and exclusion.

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Inclusion and Exclusion – A Challenge in the Context of Globalisation 9

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STEFANIE STOLZ & PHILIPP GONON Inclusion and Exclusion – A Challenge in the Context of Globalisation Introduction The following article takes general considerations about vocational education and particularly the topic of inclusion-exclusion into ac- count. With a focus on Switzerland and its vocational education, a connection from the so-called “social question” to actual problems of inclusion and exclusion is drawn within and also through voca- tional education. Most notably, the transitions from school to voca- tional education are shown on the basis of different transitions re- gimes with a special focus on inclusion and exclusion. Vocational education and training (VET) from an international perspective is based on a comparative level. The object of research is generally a comparison of educational systems or rather a variety of descriptions that compare similar phenomena in mostly two coun- tries. Differences are perceived predominantly in the context of struc- tural questions and education policies, which are as a matter of fact different, between various countries. Contrary to this, this volume takes up another form of differentiation – the one of inclusion and exclusion – that runs diagonally according to the national systems of vocational education. According to limited resources and a lack of qualifications there are two possibilities: either every VET system is confronted with the question of who should be able to participate in VET or who is excluded from it. VET systems themselves canalize processes of inclusion and exclusion when it comes to both partici- pation in VET and possibilities as well as chances of access...

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