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Property rights and their violations - La propriété violée

Expropriations and confiscations, 16 th –20 th Centuries- Expropriations et confiscations, XVI e –XX e siècles

Edited By Luigi Lorenzetti, Michela Barbot and Luca Mocarelli

Interest in the history of ownership rights is growing and spreading to different disciplines. Historians are turning their attention mainly to the rise of private and individual ownership as it was codified in 19 th -century liberal Europe. In writing this history, however, their perspective has too often ignored the other side of the coin, namely the restrictions which the sovereign imposed on such rights, allegedly in the interest of the community.
The papers collected in the present volume suggest that private property is not necessarily the most safeguarded legal model, hence it is not less vulnerable to violation. They construct a close analysis of the most common forms of abuse of private property on record – expropriation, seizure, and confiscation – perpetrated by public authorities. They also seek to define the uneasy, often intricate relation between legal and legitimate. In a perspective of lights and shadows, the role of confiscation and expropriation changes : now seen as powerful instruments of change, now as enduring factors of conservation in the evolution of private ownership rights.
Les droits de propriété sont depuis longtemps au cœur de l’intérêt de diverses disciplines. L’attention des historiens s’est focalisée surtout sur la naissance de la propriété privée et individuelle telle qu’elle a été codifiée dans l’Europe libérale du XIX e siècle. Toutefois, son histoire a trop souvent négligé l’autre face de la médaille, à savoir les limites fixées à ce droit par le souverain au nom de l’intérêt de la collectivité. Les contributions figurant dans ce volume suggèrent que la propriété privée individuelle ne représente pas le modèle juridique le plus apte à la protéger face aux risques d’infraction. Au cœur des analyses il y a les formes historiques de la violation de la propriété privée – expropriations, saisies, confiscations – perpétrées par les autorités et le rapport, souvent complexe et ambigüe, entre les dimensions de la légalité et de la légitimité. Dans un jeu d’ombres et de lumières, les confiscations et les expropriations se dessinent à la fois comme de puissants instruments de changement et de tenaces facteur de conservation dans l’évolution des formes de propriété.

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Wheat-Storage in Fascist Italy : Evolution and Policies - Manuel Vaquero Piñeiro 263

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Wheat-Storage in Fascist Italy : Evolution and Policies Manuel Vaquero Piñeiro Introduction A central feature in the general framework of economic policy pursued by the fascist regime in Italy was the strengthening of agriculture and the full exploi- tation of national agricultural resources. The Battle for Wheat (“la battaglia del grano”) and The Battle for Land (“la bonifica integrale”), which were the subject of massive propaganda campaigns, were the fundamental intervention- ist actions undertaken by the regime. The unfolded from top to bottom and deeply influenced the entire rural productive system1. During the 1920s and 1930s, in an effort to achieve self-sufficiency in food and to reduce imports, the state assumed absolute power over agricultural policy. The rules of the free market were practically eliminated, transforming many economic agents into passive performers without any degree of autonomy2. It is our intention 1 Orlando Giuseppe, “Progressi e difficoltà dell’agricoltura”, in Fuà Giorgio (a cura di), Lo sviluppo economico in Italia. Storia dell’economia italiana negli ultimi cento anni, vol. III. Studi di settore e documentazione di base, Milano, Franco Angeli, 1978, pp. 19–103 (espe- cially pp. 43–46). 2 For some recent discussions of fascist agricultural polices : Preti Domenico, “La politica agraria del fascismo. Note introduttive”, in Studi storici, XIV, 4 (1973), pp. 803–869 ; Tat- tara Giuseppe, Cerealicoltura e politica agraria durante il fascismo, in Toniolo Gianni (a cura di), Lo sviluppo economico italiano 1861–1940, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 1973, pp. 373–406 ; Fano Ester, “Problemi e vicende dell’agricoltura italiana tra...

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