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Corruption as Power

Criminal Governance in Peru during the Fujimori Era (1990-2000)

Alfredo Schulte-Bockholt

This book deals with the political corruption which infested Peru during the Fujimori years (1990-2000). The work is not about petty corruption, the small bribe paid to the underpaid police officer to avoid being booked for a minor traffic violation, but addresses the corruption of the powerful. Elites rely on corruption, and particularly in repressive regimes the practice is the most important tool of ‘criminal governance’. The author utilizes the concept of the protection racket developed by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno from the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory to explain the links between political, economic, and societal elites in Fujimori’s Peru such as the military, political parties, multinational corporations, or conservative groups within the Catholic Church.


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Acknowledgements - xv


Acknowledgements Generous thanks are due to Canada’s Social Science and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) for the major research grant, which I received between 2004 and 2007, that allowed me to investigate the Fujimori era in Peru. I am very grateful to the individuals who have provided me with feedback over the years (although they may not necessarily be aware of it any longer). These include Professor Jairo Bedoya from Medellín University, Colombia; Professor Rachel K. Brickner from Acadia University, Nova Scotia; Professor Max Came- ron from the University of British Columbia and his partner Fabiola Bazo; Professors John Cameron and Julia Sagebien from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia; Professor Walter DeKeseredy from the University of Ontario – Institute of Technology (UOIT) in Osha- wa, Ontario; Professors María Gomez and MacDonald Ighodaro from Saint Mary’s University, Halifax; Professor Scott Kenney from Memorial University, Newfoundland; Professor Lada Kozlycky from Groningen University, Netherlands; Professor Harold Pepinski from Indiana University; Human rights lawyer Luis Augusto Sepulveda from Bogotá, Colombia; Professor Teivo Teivainen from Helsinki University, Finland, and Professor Matthew Yeager from the Univer- sity of Western Ontario, Canada. For my book I considered it to be important to wait with its completion until it after the trials of former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori who had escaped justice in 2000 and whose sentencing was only concluded in 2010. As a result, I was able to rely on the scholar- ship of those whose works on the subject preceded my own. The most important contributors...

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