Criminal Governance in Peru during the Fujimori Era (1990-2000)
Chapter 3: Criminal Governance, Corruption and Power - 59
Chapter 3 Criminal Governance, Corruption and Power Corruption is authority plus monopoly minus transparency. (Unknown) 1. Introduction In the 1990s the United Nations (UN) introduced the concept of good governance as a guiding principle “to ensure sustainable human deve- lopment” (UNESCAP, 2006). The good governance agenda, as noted earlier, emphasizes political accountability, the independence of the courts, anticorruption programs, participatory as well as transparent decision-making processes. The agenda also stresses civil society, the rule of law, and the safeguarding of human rights and of the environ- ment, etc., (Ibid). Good governance was brought in by the World Bank hand in hand with neoliberal reforms because it was deemed that the latter would only be successfully implemented by clean government. For that reason the agenda was turned into “a political and economic con- ditionality ... for developing and formerly socialist bloc countries” (Weiss, 2000: 801; also see Smith, 2007). However, the World Bank’s understanding of good governance – which differs from the UN’s and which prevails over the latter’s – puts considerably more weight on practical matters and favors the economic component of said agenda (Weiss, 2000). As previously noted, Morten Bøås (1998) concluded therefore that World Bank practices effectively furthered the concen- 60 tration of political power, human rights violations, systemic corrup- tion, as well as non-representational and unresponsive government; all of which amounted to “bad governance” (1998: 119). Good governance is often a distant ideal in many countries of the global South. Indeed, the present conditions are more aptly described as...
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