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Japan as a ‘Global Pacifist State’

Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity


Daisuke Akimoto

This book examines Japan’s changing pacifism and its implications for Japan’s security identity from 1945 to the present. To examine the shift in Japanese pacifism, this research employs the concept of ‘negative pacifism’ (Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution) and ‘positive pacifism’ (the Preamble of the Constitution) as an analytical framework. To analyse multiple factors which facilitated the shift in Japan’s pacifism, this study applies ‘analytical eclecticism’ and integrates the analytical framework (negative-positive pacifism) with orthodox international relations theories and approaches. In an application of analytical eclecticism, the author proposes four theoretical models of Japan’s security identity: (a) ‘pacifist state’ (classical liberalism/negative pacifism); (b) ‘UN peacekeeper’ (neo-liberalism/positive pacifism); (c) ‘normal state’ (classical realism/domestic pressure); and (d) ‘US ally’ (neo-realism/external-structural pressure). In addition to the four basic models above, this book attempts to reveal Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’.


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Chapter Four: Japan as a ‘US Ally’ in Response to the War on Terror 165


165 Chapter Four Japan as a ‘US Ally’ in Response to the War on Terror Introduction The outbreak of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and the sub- sequent US-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq forced Japan to strengthen the military alliance with the United States and provided opportunities to take more responsibilities for maintenance of international peace and secur- ity. As was the case with peacekeeping operations in Cambodia and East Timor, post-war peace operations in Afghanistan and Iraq were author- ised by the United Nations. In response to the changing international security environment, the Koizumi government decided to dispatch the Aegis destroyers to the Indian Ocean in 2002 and the GSDF to Iraq in 2004 as part of security cooperation arrangements with the United States. The purpose of this chapter is: 1) to examine whether there were shifts from ‘negative pacifism’ to ‘positive pacifism’ in relation to legis- lative processes in the 2001 Anti-Terrorism Legislation and the 2003 Iraq Special Measures Legislation and the following SDF dispatches; 2) to explore the question of whether the SDF dispatch to the Indian Ocean and Iraq facilitated Japan’s military normalisation and trans-armament; and 3) to investigate the extent to which domestic and external factors influenced Japan’s SDF dispatch to the Indian Ocean and Iraq. In ad- dition, analytical eclecticism will be applied in an attempt to provide theoretical explanations for the shifts in Japan’s pacifism and security identity. This chapter focuses on Japan’s security policy response to the Iraq War...

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