Its Changing Pacifism and Security Identity
245 Conclusion This book has attempted to make a contribution to the study of Japa- nese politics and theory of international relations by providing compre- hensive theoretical perspectives concerning Japanese pacifism and its security identity. As pointed out in the Introduction, existing research on Japanese security policy lacks a theoretical conceptualisation of Japa- nese pacifism and eclectic approach to examine the shift from ‘nega- tive pacifism’ to ‘positive pacifism’ and its influence on Japan’s secu- rity identity. In contrast, this study has applied ‘negative and positive pacifism’ as an analytical framework and employed ‘analytical eclecti- cism’ to examine several case studies. The findings of this research, especially Japan’s ‘core security identity’ as a ‘global pacifist state’, have several significant implications for Japan’s foreign and security policy in the 21st centry. As a conclusion of the book, theoretical impli- cations, lingering influence of negative pacifism, increasing signifi- cance of positive pacifism, the influence of domestic and external pres- sures, and implications of Japan’s core security identity, will be surmarised below. Theoretical Implications Before examining the case studies, this research began with a conceptualisation of negative-positive pacifism as an analytical frame- work. Prominent Japanese realist scholars and political leaders such as Kenichi It+ and Ichir+ Ozawa used the concept, ‘positive pacifism’ to criticise ‘negative pacifism’ represented in Article 9 as egotistic and irresponsible ‘one-nation pacifism’. At the same time, It+ sought to justify Japan’s contributions to UN-authorised or US-led military op- erations, such as the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 Iraq...
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