UK, Spain, Italy, Poland, Denmark, France and Germany
Edited By Pablo Romero-Fresco
Different viewers, different needs: Personal subtitles for Danish TV?
← 16 | 17 →Chapter 1
Abstract: This chapter looks at the situation in Denmark, a subtitling country since 1929, with subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing since 1980. The empirical basis is the Danish DTV4All questionnaire on viewer reception and attitudes to subtitles. The study analyzes the answers of 141 respondents: 31 deaf, 46 hard-of-hearing and 64 hearing viewers. The unique semiotics of subtitling are discussed, and four basic types are distinguished:
a) bona fide subtitling, with subtitles created directly from the dialogue (foreign or domestic) and cued by the subtitler before transmission,
b) relay subtitling, based on existing pre-cued subtitles,
c) semi-live subtitling, with (TV) subtitles created by the subtitler before transmission and cued during transmission, and
d) live subtitling, when (intralingual) subtitles are created and cued, with a delay, during transmission.
Although viewers of all three groups tend to be quite satisfied with Danish subtitling practices, this study shows that there is room for improvement: Not only do the needs of hearing-impaired viewers differ from those of normally hearing people; the deaf and the hard of hearing have different needs. This suggests at least three subtitling options for any TV production.
In addition to this come the needs of ethnic minorities, a group of viewers underrepresented in this project. Such viewers often avoid watching domestic television in favor of satellite-transmitted foreign TV. Introducing personal subtitling by offering subtitles in major immigrant languages – on top of the three versions suggested...
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