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Räume der Passion

Raumvisionen, Erinnerungsorte und Topographien des Leidens Christi in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit

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Edited By Hans Aurenhammer and Daniela Bohde

Ölberg, Pilatuspalast, Golgatha, Grabesstätte: die Passion Christi fand an konkreten Orten in und vor der Stadt Jerusalem statt. Der fromme Nachvollzug des Leidens des Erlösers in Mittelalter und Früher Neuzeit aktivierte diese räumliche Dimension auf vielfältige Weise. Kreuzwege und Kalvarienberge evozierten die Topographie der Kultstätten des fernen Heiligen Lands. Geistliche Schauspiele, Prozessionen und Hinrichtungsrituale verwandelten spätmittelalterliche Städte in hybride Räume, in denen die Erinnerung der Passion mit der Gegenwart der Gläubigen verschmolz. Tafelbilder, illustrierte Handschriften und Raumdekorationen eröffneten imaginäre Passionsräume, in die sich die Betrachterinnen und Betrachter versetzen konnten. Die Passion Christi wurde so verinnerlicht und erhielt einen Ort im Herzen der Gläubigen. Diese bisher vernachlässigte räumliche Dimension der Passionsfrömmigkeit ist das Thema des kunsthistorische, historische sowie literaturwissenschaftliche Beiträge umfassenden Bandes. Er verfolgt exemplarisch die Geschichte der zur Visualisierung der Passion Christi entwickelten Raumkonzepte und Raumsemantiken von der Spätantike bis zum 16. Jahrhundert.
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Golgatha, Now and Then: Image and Sacrificial Topography in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe

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ACHIM TIMMERMANN

Golgotha, Now and Then: Image and Sacrificial Topography in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe

At least one or two priests [should] accompany him as he is taken or dragged to [the scaffold] / [and] instill in him good thoughts / One should also, while he is taken to the scaffold and taken toward his death, constantly hold a crucifix before him (Bambergische Peinliche Halsgerichtsordnung, 1507).

In this essay I explore the use of pictorial devices in the stage-management of capital punishment; in particular, I focus here on the roles such images might have played in bringing about a kind of temporary oscillation between two distinct sacrificial topographies – those namely of the fifteenth- or sixteenth-century town, with its scaffold extra muros, and of the biblical Jerusalem, with Mount Calvary looming above it. I ask furthermore whether the deployment of certain pictures encouraged both the convicted offender and the audiences about to witness his or her gory death to view and experience the execution ritual itself as a real-life Passion play. The images designed for these performances were variously mobile, portable, and miniaturized, or else stationary and monumental, and they could be self-contained but were also integrated into the surrounding landscape; to complicate matters, different types of pictures were often used in combination in one and the same judicial performance, and while some were calibrated for the sole benefit of the condemned criminal, others were also intended to address the...

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