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L’Europe des citoyens et la citoyenneté européenne

Évolutions, limites et perspectives

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Edited By Michel Catala, Stanislas Jeannesson and Anne-Sophie Lamblin Gourdin

La construction européenne est souvent présentée ou perçue comme un processus technocratique imposé aux peuples par les élites à la suite du désastre de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et du traumatisme de la Guerre froide. La crise actuelle que connaît l’Union européenne semble ainsi démontrer l’absence de solidarité entre les États et les peuples du continent, par manque d’identité partagée et de projet politique démocratiquement accepté. La création d’une citoyenneté européenne par le traité de Maastricht, en 1992, n’a pas enrayé le désintérêt des citoyens des États membres, pourtant de plus en plus affectés par les politiques européennes, à l’égard de l’Union et de ses institutions. Dans une perspective résolument interdisciplinaire, à la croisée de l’histoire, du droit, des sciences politiques, de la sociologie et de la philosophie, cet ouvrage entend dépasser ce constat d’échec un peu simpliste, pour étudier les modalités et les visages de la citoyenneté européenne, son émergence progressive depuis les premiers projets de l’entre-deux-guerres, ses limites et ses insuffisances, mais aussi ses perspectives, à long terme comme dans un avenir proche.
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Thomas Hoerber - The formation of a European environmental conscience

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Thomas HOERBER, ESSCA Angers

The formation of a European environmental conscience

The main argument of this article is that a European environmental conscience has developed through successive steps of European integration in energy policy. This environmental conscience is not particular to Europe. In the 1960s–70s, the whole world was slowly beginning to realise that environment degradation was not sustainable. However, a European environmental conscience was reflected in the European institutions, which have been developing in parallel to such growing environmental concerns. The Commission, for example, incorporated both energy and environmental policies into the EU policy canon and hence built an institutional framework, which could answer to the growing environmental conscience of the European peoples, for which national policy answers were evidently not sufficient. With phenomena such as acid rain, it became clear that pollution did not stop at national boundaries. Acid rain was one of the first environmental issues with a European dimension, in this case between Great Britain and Sweden, i.e. pollution caused in one country are causing environment degradation in another country.

Similar conclusions had been drawn even earlier for the energy sector. Energy shortage in Europe was common to all nation states and it was a concern too big to be solved by any single one of them. The European integration process, therefore, was founded on energy communities, such as the ECSC and Euratom. They were meant to pool the scarce energy resource available in Europe, such...

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