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Acquisition of «be» by Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong- and its Pedagogical Implications

Mable Chan

The present study examines grammaticality judgment data, production data and acceptability judgment data from 243 Cantonese second language learners and a control group of 12 native English speakers. Research areas concern (a) the role of the first language in the acquisition of be by Cantonese second language learners; (b) the question if properties associated with be remain persistently problematic for Cantonese speakers; (c) developmental stages of the acquisition of be; (d) the relationship between morphology and syntax; and (e) pedagogical implications.
No published L2 research has attempted an in-depth theoretical and empirical treatment of both acquisition and teaching subject matters in one single work. This work helps bridge the gap between acquisition theory and language pedagogy research, benefitting not just language learners but language teachers around the world, and all those who would like to witness a collaboration between second language acquisition theory and second language teaching practice in general.
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Appendix K: Romanization Systems: Yale, IPA and LSHK


Notes: Yale refers to the Yale romanization system, the system adopted in this book, with the exception that the high falling tone is not used, the words concerned being shown with a high level tone. LSHK stands for the romanization scheme proposed and adopted by the Linguistic Society of Hongkong in 1993. The IPA symbols represent broad transcriptions. The descriptions in parentheses explain the condition under which the sound is used. For example, in the table for vowels, the romanized form i is generally pronounced as IPA [iː]; however, it is pronounced as IPA [e] before ng and k.

Initial Consonants

← 389 | 390 →

Final Consonants

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