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Security, Democracy and Development

In the Southern Caucasus and the Black Sea Region


Ghia Nodia and Christoph H. Stefes

Since the early 1990s, the southern Caucasus and its larger neighbourhood, the Black Sea region, have experienced deep and sometimes painful transformations, including bloody conflicts. They have also become an arena of geopolitical and geoeconomic competition between great powers. This has attracted growing attention from social scientists. In this volume, authors from universities in Europe, the United States and the southern Caucasus focus on several of the most topical problems of the region, particularly how nascent states and societies grapple with the results of unresolved ethno-territorial conflicts and how they try to construct new civil societies from the cultural mosaic that they inherited from their Soviet past. How do elements of democracy and autocracy combine in the political regimes of the new states? Can the West have an effect on their internal development and, if so, how? How do the rich mineral resources of the Caspian region influence the development of the region’s economies and define the geopolitical standing of these countries?
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Spreading Democratic Governance? NGOs in the Eastern Partnership: The Case of Georgia



ABSTRACT: This chapter applies an external-governance approach to the prospects of the EU’s support for democracy in its Eastern neighbourhood and considers the Eastern Partnership as a way for the EU to expand its characteristic model of governance outside its own borders. One of the key elements in the EU’s claims to effective and democratic governance comes from the inclusion of non-state actors such as NGOs. This chapter focuses on the case of Georgia and analyses how and to what extent Georgian NGOs have been integrated in the EU’s external policies. It addresses the issue of whether NGO inclusion into the Eastern Partnership has ultimately led to increased democratic governance both at the level of relations with the EU and at the Georgian domestic level.

KEYWORDS: civil society, Europeanization, democratization, democracy promotion, Eastern Partnership, European Union, Georgia

Through the introduction of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and the subsequent Eastern Partnership (EaP) the European Union has attempted to strengthen and rationalize its relations with its Eastern neighbours. Amongst a wide array of objectives in the fields of politics, economy and security these policies aim to strengthen democracy in the countries concerned. Compared with earlier rounds of enlargement, the EU has less clout to induce democratization in its neighbourhood. However, this does not inevitably lead to the conclusion that the EU has no other tools or facilities at its disposal to do so.

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