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Scientific diasporas as development partners

Skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa in Switzerland: empirical evidence and policy responses- Preface by Jean-Baptiste Meyer

Edited By Gabriela Tejada Guerrero and Jean-Claude Bolay

Over the last two decades, globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, particularly of skilled labour. Yet increasing migration by skilled workers from developing countries («brain drain») has raised serious concerns internationally about the adverse development impact on their countries of origin. This book, however, highlights the positive aspects of skilled labour migration as scientific diasporas are playing a growing role in the transfer of technology, skills and knowledge («brain gain») to their home countries. This is a very significant development in a globalised world where science, technology and knowledge can trigger economic and social transformations. The book presents solid empirical evidence of the contributions scientific diasporas make to their countries of origin, based on primary surveys of skilled migrants from Colombia, India and South Africa employed in Switzerland, a major destination country. The findings lead to a better understanding of the motives for migration, the profile of the scientific diaspora communities in Switzerland, and the varied ways in which they help their home countries. The book makes a significant contribution to the international policy debate and dialogue on migration and development. In particular, it shows how to leverage the potential of scientific diasporas as agents of home country development, by identifying good practices and offering specific recommendations for the countries of origin and of destination.

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Chapter 2 Scientific Diasporas, Migration and Development. A Perspective from Philosophy and Political Theory by Marie-Claire CALOZ-TSCHOPP 21

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Chapter 2 Scientific Diasporas, Migration and Development A Perspective from Philosophy and Political Theory1 Marie-Claire CALOZ-TSCHOPP2 When modern man fell to Earth and wanted to restructure all the relation- ships of immanence and transcendence from a vertical plane to a horizontal one, it was doubtlessly foreseen that a return to verticality was in the natu- ral order of things. Nevertheless, those suppositions which suggest that the world is flat are now generally accepted by modern political imagination as being too limiting. Walker, R. B. J., 2005 Contents Introduction: choosing the “diaspora option” Sustainable development = sustainable scientific diasporas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1. Diasporas, Scientific Diasporas, Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1.1 Diasporas in the Perspective of Philosophy and Political Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 1.1.1 Diasporas – the Statelessness of Modernity in the 19th Century? . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.1.2 Political Ambiguity in the Concept of Diaspora Requires Intellectual Caution . . 39 1.1.3 Development Reveals an Ambiguity in Migration Policies of Scientific Diasporas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.1.4 Globalisation of Human Capital, Internationalisation of Education, Academic Research and Scientific Diasporas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 1.1.5 Scientific Diasporas and the Cosmopolis. The Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2. Globalisation, Development and Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.1 Globalisation and History: Attempting to Divide History into Periods, Ruptures in History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.2 The Theories of Liberalism, Justice and Development are Confronted by the New World Order and by Cognitive Capitalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 1 This chapter was written originally in French under the title: Diasporas scientifiques, migra- tion, développement. À la lumière de la philosophie et de la théorie politique. 2 Professor at the Institute of Political and...

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