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Doctoral Education’s Reform in Switzerland and Norway

A Public Management Analysis

Lukas Baschung

Since the beginning of the 21 st century, doctoral education has gained an increasingly important place on the reform agenda of higher education institutions and also at national and European policy levels. By paying particular attention to the characteristics and role of recently emerged Doctoral and Research Schools, this book examines on a broad empirical basis what this reform consists of in two small but scientifically and economically successful countries – Switzerland and Norway. This reform also raises the question to what extent power shifts take place regarding the doctoral process. Thus, does the «Thesis director» lose his or her power at the expense of other actors? Observed shifts are characterised through components of varying Public Management Narratives. In order to consider existing variety, case studies have been chosen on the basis of four variables – type of national political system, size and type of higher education institution and type of scientific discipline. This methodological framework allows not only illustrating variation in the reform process and its causes but also the development of a new University Governance Scheme.

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Part 3: Transversal Analysis 245

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Part 3: Transversal Analysis 247 IX. Comparing Public Management Stories and Reforms This first transversal chapter has a double function: it provides an overview of general trends within and comparison of the observed public management stories and reforms of doctoral education. In the framework of these comparisons, the four identified variables are discussed regarding their explicative power for identified management stories and doctoral education’s reform. Simultaneously, wider lessons about university governance are drawn on this basis. Thereby, all four research questions formulated in this study’s introduction can be answered. Previously, triggers and obstacles of the doctoral school movement in Switzerland and Norway are developed in an amalgamated manner, what also contributes to the general understanding of the doctoral school movement and the related doctoral education’s reform in Switzerland and Norway. IX.1. Triggers and Obstacles of the Swiss and Norwegian Doctoral School Movement The eight examined case studies allowed the discovery of a series of contextual elements which can be seen as triggers and promoters but also obstacles of the doctoral school movement – and the related reform of doctoral education – in Switzerland and Norway. This section summarises and analyses those varying contextual elements. A first major result of this analysis consists of the finding according to which broader issues related to the nature and development of the national (and international) landscapes of higher education served as triggers for the doctoral school movement. It is particularly the profile and stratification issue, pointed at in chapter IV, to which the doctoral school movement...

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