The European Union, Europe and the Challenges of the 21 st Century
This volume contributes to the debate about the changing face of Europe and the way it works, not just internally, but also with the rest of the world. It first explores the merits of fostering inclusive multicultural citizenship and religious pluralism in Europe, the necessity of reinventing the EU from below, and the urgency of addressing EU internal migration problems. It then examines the new role of the EU in world politics and how other countries view it in terms of hard and soft power. Can the EU inspire by its development aid, conflict prevention, social and audiovisual policies? How efficient is it in exporting security to the rest of the world? The final chapters deal with the EU in the Asia Pacific region.
PART I. UNITY IN DIVERSITY:VALUES, CULTURE, MIGRATION AND IDENTITY
PART I UNITY IN DIVERSITY: VALUES, CULTURE, MIGRATION AND IDENTITY CHAPTER 2 Whither European Integration? The Impact of Multicultural Identities in a Globalising Context Giancarlo CHIRO & Katharine VADURA Introduction While the project for a united Europe has its roots in the cosmopoli- tan ideals of figures of the Enlightenment such as Voltaire, Montesquieu and Kant, the immediate historical motives behind the establishment of the European Union (EU) can be found in the aftermath of two world wars. These, at least for Western Europe, brought about the completion of national projects instigated in the previous century. According to Ulrich Beck,' cosmopolitan Europe was consciously conceived and launched after the Second World War as the political antithesis to a nationalistic Europe and the physical and moral devastation that had emerged from it. It was in this spirit in 1946 that Winston Churchill claimed, "If Europe were once united [...] there would be no limit to the happiness, to the prosperity and the glory which its four hundred million people would enjoy". For Beck, Europe is a project born of Nazi resis- tance which was reinvented by statesmen and those most closely identi- fied with the resistance who were able to reach past the mass graves back into the European history of ideas. Clearly the political and cultural landscape of Europe has changed considerably since those early days. Changing patterns and increasing migration flows, due to market-driven globalising forces in the latter part of the 20th century, security concerns stemming from the terrorist...
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