Conflict, Memory and Identity
This volume examines the topics of conflict, memory and identity through a collection of insightful viewpoints and perspectives, reflecting a diversity of cultural and social backgrounds, which combine to give a contemporary interdisciplinary analysis of cultural interactions and their effects. The themes covered by the authors, such as memory and forgetfulness, migration, ecological concerns, mixed cultural landscapes, storytelling, postcolonial trauma and internal struggles for identity, offer the reader a fascinating glimpse into the ongoing and evolving social debate about identity and purpose.
School Manuals in Estado Novo:The Reproduction of a Sexist and Colonialist Culture 107 - Manuela Malheiro Ferreira and Manuela Tavares
107 School Manuals in Estado Novo The Reproduction of a Sexist and Colonialist Culture Manuela Malheiro FERREIRA and Manuela TAVARES Universidade Aberta/CEMRI Introduction The 20th century was considered by historians as the century of women – the century when the most determining changes within the social, political and economic statute of women occurred. However, the historian Françoise Thébaud draws attention to the fact that this phenomenon does not mean that the 20th century, after continuously evolving towards the emancipation of women, brings in any way an end to its history (Thébaud, 1991: 9). The advances were registered in different ways in different countries and, in every country, changes within the relations between genders have depended upon political contexts. The gender relations in colonized countries have also suffered the impact of the colonizing power, where women were always the weakest link, also when it came to armed conflicts. A feminism which was not very attentive to ethnic differences and women of different cultures has also rendered invisible the experiences of these women. Women were somehow “colonized” by the Estado Novo (New State). Portugal, a country that colonized other peoples and cultures, lived a long period under an obscurantist and fascistic dictatorship, which left marks upon people’s mentalities, even after the major political and legislative changes were carried out after the establishment of democracy on the 25th of April 1974. Misogynic problems are not overcome; on the contrary, the stereotypes of gender last and persist within the Portuguese society. One...
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