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La puissance britannique en question / Challenges to British Power Status

Diplomatie et politique étrangère au 20e siècle / Foreign Policy and Diplomacy in the 20th Century


Edited By Claire Sanderson and Mélanie Torrent

Cet ouvrage est consacré aux transformations de la politique étrangère et de la diplomatie britanniques dans le temps long du déclin impérial, de l’intégration européenne et des relations transatlantiques. De la Royal Navy de l’amiral sir John Fisher à la politique nucléaire contemporaine, les auteurs analysent la capacité d’adaptation des pratiques internationales de la Grande-Bretagne, ses moteurs, ses limites et sa signification, à travers des cas d’étude centrés sur des archives nouvellement ouvertes ou des aires parfois marginalisées. Ils démontrent l’influence des individus, le poids des réseaux, l’évolution des processus de consultation et de prise de décision, en contexte de crise comme dans la gestion quotidienne. Considérant tour à tour les échelles locales et globales, bilatérales et multilatérales, l’ouvrage offre une perspective critique sur les pratiques culturelles et les courants intellectuels qui sous-tendent la politique étrangère et la diplomatie britanniques au 20 e siècle, de Bruxelles à Washington, du Canada au Pacifique, des Malouines à l’Afrique, des Nations Unies au Commonwealth des Nations.
This study addresses transformations in British diplomacy and foreign policy through the long-term perspectives of imperial decline, European integration and transatlantic relations. From the Royal Navy of Admiral Sir John Fisher to contemporary nuclear policy, the authors analyse Britain’s capacity to adapt its international practices, and the driving forces and constraints behind them. Using case studies based on newly available archives and including regions that tend to be marginalised, they show the influence of individuals, the importance of networks and the evolution of the consultation and decision-making processes, in contexts of both crisis and daily management. On a local, global, bilateral and multilateral scale, the book offers a critical perspective of the cultural practices and intellectual trends underlying British diplomacy and foreign policy in the 20th century, from Brussels to Washington, from the Falkland Islands to Africa, from the United Nations to the Commonwealth of Nations.


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TROISIÈME PARTIE DIPLOMATIE ET DÉFENSE : RENOUVEAU ET RENOUVELLEMENT PART THREE DIPLOMACY AND DEFENCE: REVIVAL AND RENEWAL 187 Two Labour Prime Ministers and America Clement Attlee (1945-1951) and Tony Blair (1997-2007) Michael F. HOPKINS University of Liverpool The election of Barack Obama as President of the United States in November 2008 was a landmark in American history. Yet it occasioned a familiar response in Britain as the Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, rushed to be the first foreign leader to meet the new president – he narrowly failed, coming second to the Japanese premier. This quest is invariably accompanied by an anxiety to hear the president (and his advisors) utter the consoling balm that the ‘special relationship’ between Washington and London continues to flourish. Ever since the wartime alliance of Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, Anglo-American relations have been symbolised by the understanding between the British Prime Minister and the US President. Twelve premiers and twelve presidents have served in the past sixty years. Its most successful phases are associated with two Conservative Prime Ministers, Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. Yet, it was under a Labour Prime Minister, Clement Attlee, that the Second World War alliance became a regular feature of each country’s foreign policy priorities. Attlee and the American president, Harry S. Truman, were Cold War allies and military allies in the Korean War. Tony Blair presided over another Anglo-American wartime alliance in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; and, in particular the Iraq War since...

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