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Strategic Natural Resource Governance / La gouvernance des ressources naturelles stratégiques

Contemporary Environmental Perspectives / Perspectives contemporaines dans le domaine de l’environnement

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Edited By Carmen Maganda and Olivier Petit

Natural resources are exploited on a daily basis to provide basic services but they are managed for different purposes. Strategic environmental governance has been one of the most successful notions in the political arena and in the academic literature in recent times. This book presents different approaches to environmental governance, aiming to understand the roles of different stakeholders at different levels, which is a key issue in the field of environment and natural resources. The book is essential reading for researchers, students and decision-makers involved in the management of natural resources at local, regional, national and international levels.
Les ressources naturelles sont exploitées quotidiennement pour fournir des besoins élémentaires, mais elles sont également gérées pour différentes finalités. La notion de gouvernance environnementale stratégique a sans doute été l’une des notions ayant rencontré le plus de succès au niveau politique comme dans les milieux académiques, ces vingt dernières années, et un bilan s’avère aujourd’hui nécessaire. Cet ouvrage présente différentes approches de la gouvernance environnementale, visant notamment à comprendre le rôle des acteurs à différentes échelles, ce qui constitue un enjeu essentiel dans le domaine de l’environnement et des ressources naturelles. Cet ouvrage est destiné à un large lectorat composé de scientifiques, d’étudiants, mais aussi de gestionnaires de l’environnement opérant à toutes les échelles, du local à l’international.

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PART I: ACTORS, RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITY / PREMIÈRE PARTIE : ACTEURS, DROITS ET RESPONSABILITÉ

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PART I ACTORS, RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITY _____________ PREMIÈRE PARTIE ACTEURS, DROITS ET RESPONSABILITÉ 19 Conflicting Rights and Interests in Indigenous Territories The Implications of Exploitation and Conservation of Natural Resources Marcela CEBALLOS MEDINA & Olivier PETIT Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia & CLERSE-CNRS Université d’Artois, France Introduction Indigenous communities have always developed strong links with their territory, defined as a common heritage and as a social-ecological system made up of the interaction between natural resources and human communities in a place. Mining activities (by oil companies for in- stance) and contemporary conservation policies aiming to protect biodiversity have endangered the physical and cultural links between indigenous communities and their territories. These policies have some- times resulted in forced displacements and, more frequently, cultural changes (most of them related to self-government and ways of self- provisioning) in certain areas. The aim of this paper is to understand the conflicts inherent to such situations (conflicts over conceptions of property rights, impacts in terms of environmental justice, territory, the common interest, etc.) and their consequences for indigenous communities. It is framed by the following questions: What are the impacts of environmental conserva- tion and strategic resources exploitation projects on indigenous rights and what kind of social-ecological system do they promote? What types of social-ecological conflicts emerge from conservation and exploitation projects and how are they solved? In relation to this general question, this paper addresses several im- portant issues related to the concept of territory: Strategic Natural Resource Governance 20  The distinction between territorial “sovereignty...

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